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H
erbal Medicine Materia Medica
 

Garlic

© David L. Hoffmann BSc (Hons), MNIMH

Allium sativum

Liliaceae

Habitat: Cultivated worldwide.

Collection: The bulb with its numerous cloves should be unearthed when the leaves begin to wither in September. They should be stored in a cool dry place.

Part Used: Bulb.

Constituents:

  • Volatile oil, consisting of sulphur-containing compounds, including allicin (=S-allyl-2-propenthiosulphinate), allyl-methyltrisulphide, diallyldisulphide, diallyltrisulphide, diallyltetrasulphide, allylpropyldisulphide, ajoene, 2-vinyl-4H-l, 3 dithiin, and alliin, which breaks down enzymatically to allicin; with citral, geraniol linalool and a- and b-phellandrene
  • Miscellaneous; enzymes including allinase, B vitamins, minerals flavonoids.
Actions: Anti-microbial, diaphoretic, cholagogue, hypotensive, anti-spasmodic.

Indications: Garlic is among the few herbs that have a universal usage and recognition. Its daily usage aids and supports the body in ways that no other herb does. It is one of the most effective anti-microbial plants available, acting on bacteria, viruses and alimentary parasites. The volatile oil is an effective agent and as it is largely excreted via the lungs, it is used in infections of this system such as chronic bronchitis, respiratory catarrh, recurrent colds and influenza. It may be helpful in the treatment of whooping cough and as part of a broader approach to bronchitic asthma. In general it may be used as a preventative for most infectious conditions, digestive as well as respiratory. For the digestive tract it has been found that Garlic will support the development of the natural bacterial flora whilst killing pathogenic organisms. In addition to these amazing properties, Garlic have an international reputation for lowering both blood pressure, blood cholesterol levels and generally improving the health of the cardio-vascular system. A recent study was conducted on two groups, one consisting of 20 healthy volunteers who were fed Garlic for 6 months and the other of 62 patients with coronary heart disease and raised serum cholesterol. Beneficially changes were found in all involved and reached a peak at the end of 8 months. The improvement in cholesterol levels persisted throughout the 2 months of clinical follow-up. The clinicians concluded that the essential oil of Garlic possessed a distinct hypolipidemic, or fat reducing, action in both healthy people and patients with coronary heart disease. Garlic should be thought of as a basic food that will augment the body's health and pretect it in general. It has been used externally for the treatment of ringworm and threadworm.

Preparations & Dosage: A clove should be eaten three times a day. If the smell becomes a problem, use Garlic oil capsules, take three a day as a prophylactic or three times a day when an infection occurs.

adenosine
ajoene 411/
cis-ajoene
trans-ajoene 268
alanine 1, 320-3, 168
allicin 1, 500-27, 800
alliin 5, 000-10, 000
alliinase 411/
allisatin pl
allistatin-i
allistatin-ii
allixin
s-allo-mercapto-cysteine
s-allyl-cysteine
s-allyl-cysteine-suoxide
allyl-disuide
allyl-methyl-disuide
allyl-methyl-trisuide
allyl-propyl-disuide
aluminum
aniline
arachidonic-acid
arginine
ascorbic-acid
aspartic-acid
biotin
boron
5-tyl-cysteine-suoxide
caffeic-acid
calcium
calcium-oxalate
carbohydrates
s-(2-carboxy-propyl)-glutathione
beta-carotene
beta-carotene
beta-carotene
beta-carotene
chlorogenic-acid
choline
chromium
citral
cobalt
copper
p-coumaric-acid
cycloalliin
cystine
desgalactotigonin 400 rt
desoxyribonuclease
diallyl-disuide
diallyl-suide
diallyl-tetrasuide
3, 5-diethyl-1, 2, 4-trithiolane
digalactosyl-diglyceride
1, 2-dimercaptocyclopentane
dimethyl-disuide
dimethyl-difuran
dimethyl-suide
2, 5-dimethyl-tetrahydro
thiophene dimethyl-trisuide
1, 3-dithiane
eicosapentaenoic-acid
essential oil
1, 2-epithiopropane
s-ethyl-cysteine-suoxide
fat
ferulic-acid
fiber
foliacin
fructose
geraniol
germanium
gibberellin-a-3
gibberellin-a-7
gitonin
glucose
glutamic-acid 8, 050-19, 320
gamma-l-glutamyl-s-allyl-cysteine
gamma-l-glutamyl-s-beta-carboxy-beta-methyl-ethyl-cysteinyl-glycine
gamma-l-glutamyl-s-(2-carboxy-1-propyl)-cysteineglycine
gamma-l-glutamyl-s-allyl-mercapto-cysteine
gamma-l-glutamyl-isoleucine
gamma-l-glutamyl-l-leucine
gamma-l-glutamyl-methionine
gamma-l-glutamyl-s-methyl-l-cysteine-suoxide
gamma-l-glutamyl-l-phenylalanine
gamma-l-glutamyl-s-propyl-l-cysteine
gamma-l-glutamyl-l-valine
glutathione
glycerol-suoquinovoside
glycine
guanosine
hexa-1, 5-dienyl-trisuide
1-hexanol
hexokinase
histidine
p-hydroxybenzoic-acid
iodine
iron isotyl-isothiocyanate
isoleucine
kaempferol
leucine
linalool
linolenic-acid
lysine
magnesium
manganese
methionine
methyl-allyl-disuide
methylallyl-suide
methylallyl-trisuide
2-methylbenzaldehyde t
3-methyl-2-cyclopentene-1-thione
s-methyl-cysteine
s-methyl-cysteine-suoxide
24-methylene-cycloartenol
s-methyl-l-cysteine-suoxide
1-methyl-2-(prop-2-enyl)-disuane
1-methyl-1, 2-(prop-2-enyl)-disuane
1-methyl-3-(prop-2-enyl)-trisuane
methyl-propyl-disuide
4-methyl-5-vinylthiazole
monogalactosyl-diglyceride
myrosinase
niacin
nickel
nicotinic-acid
oleanolic-acid
oleic-acid
ornithine
peroxidase
alpha-phellandrene
beta-phellandrene
phenylalanine
phloroglucinol pl
phosphatidyl-choline
phosphatidyl-ethanolamine
phosphatidyl-inositol
phosphatidyl-serine
phosphorus
phytic-acid
potassium
proline
2-propen-1-ol
propene
propenethiol
prop-2-enyl-disuane
1, 2-(prop-2-enyl)-disuane
trans-1-propenyl-methyl-disuide
s-propenyl-cysteine
s-propyl-cysteine-suoxide
trans-s-(propenyl-1-yl)-cysteine-disuide
prostaglandin-a-1
prostaglandin-a-2
prostaglandin-b-1
prostaglandin-b-2
prostaglandin-e-1
prostaglandin-e-2
alpha-prostaglandin-f-1
alpha-prostaglandin-f-2
protein
protodegalactotigonin
protoeruboside-b
pseudoscoridinine-a
pseudoscoridinine-b
quercetin
quercetin-3-o-beta-d-glucoside
raffinose
riboavin
riboavin
riboavin
riboavin
rutin
saponin
sativoside-b-1
sativoside-r-1
sativoside-r-2
scordine
scordinin-a
scorodinin-a-1
scorodinin-a-2
scorodinine-a-3
scorodinin-b
scorodose
selenium
serine
silicon
siic-acid
beta-sitosterol
sodium
sodium
stigmasterol
succinic-acid
sucrose
taurine
thiamacornine
thiamamidine
thiamin
threonine
tin
alpha-tocopherol
beta-tocopherol
2, 3, 4-trithiapentane
tryptophan
tyrosine
tyrosinase
uranium
valine
2-vinyl-4h-1, 3-dithiin
3-vinyl-4h-1, 2-dithiin
vit-u
zinc


Citations from the Medline database for Allium sativum

Aboul-Enein AM: Inhibition of tumor growth with possible immunity by Egyptian garlic extracts.

NAHRUNG 1986; 30(2):161-9

Garlic bulbs (Allium sativum) were extracted with distilled water or ethanol. The extracts were then incubated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells at 37 degrees C for 1 h. These pretreated cells were injected into swiss albino mice which survived over 12 weeks. To the contrary, tumor cells which were pretreated with garlic extracts, produced ascites tumor in all mice that died 2 or 4 weeks after intraperitoneal injection. When mice were treated twice at intervals of 7 days with freshly prepared tumor cells exposed to watery or ethanolic extracts of fresh garlic, they acquired resistance against a challenge with Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Administration of garlic extracts to mice for at least 2 weeks before tumor transplantation, caused a slight delay of 10-20 days in tumor growth and animal death. Generally, the ethanolic extract of garlic gave more pronounced effect as tumor inhibitor as well as immunityinduction than watery extract. No change in serum electrophoreticpattern was detected in mice, whether the tumor cells injected wereincubated or not with garlic extract. In animals treated withunincubated tumor cells, albumin and globulin percentages as well as albumin: globulin ratios (A/G) were decreased as compared to normalmice. A/G ratio was also decreased in immunized mice, pretreated with garlic extract, due to the increase of gamma globulin and unchanging of albumin.

Adoga GI: Effect of garlic oil extract on glutathione reductase levels in rats fed on high sucrose and alcohol diets: a possible mechanism of the activity of the oil.

BIOSCI REP 1986 Oct; 6(10):909-12

The effect on glutathione reductase activities of feeding garlic oil to white albino rats maintained on high sucrose and alcohol diets was studied. Whereas high sucrose and alcohol diets resulted in significant increases in the activity of glutathione reductase in liver, kidneys and serum, the presence of garlic oil restored the levels to near normal. It is proposed that the mechanism of this action of garlic oil involves the active principle, diallyl disulphide, which interacts in an exchange reaction with enzymes and substrates such as glutathione reductase and glutathione which contain thiol groups.

Adoga GI Osuji J: Effect of garlic oil extract on serum, liver and kidney enzymes of rats fed on high sucrose & alcohol diets.

BIOCHEM INT 1986 Oct; 13(4):615-24

High levels of alkaline phosphatase and alcohol dehydrogenase were observed in the serum, liver and kidneys of rats fed on high sucrose and high alcohol diets over a period of 75 days. Garlic oil extract fed with any of the diets, significantly lowered the high levels of the two enzymes in the serum, liver and kidneys. This effect may be due to reduced biosynthesis of fatty acids as NADPH, required for the process, is utilised for the metabolism of the oil.

Ahn-B-W; Lee-D-H; Yeo-S-G; Kang-J-H; Do-J-R; Kim-Y-H; Park-Y-H

Inhibitory action of natural food components on the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamine.

Bulletin of the Korean Fisheries Society (1993) 26(4): 289-295

The present paper was investigated in the inhibitory action of vegetable and seaweed water-soluble extracts on the formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA). The vegetable and seaweed extracts obtained from garlic(Allium sativum), onion(Allium cepa), green onion(Allium fistuiosum), chinese pepper(Fagara mandshurica), green pepper (Capsicum annuum), red pepper(Capsicum annuum), ginger(Zingiber officinale), carrot (Daucus carota), laver(Porphyra tenera), sea lettuce(Entero compresa), sea mustard (Undaria pinnatifida) and sea staghorn(Codium fragile) were incubated with sodium nitrite-dimethylamine mixtures at 37 degree C under different pH conditions. The formation of NDMA was reduced to 10 apprx 40% and 25 apprx 50% by the addition of vegetable and seaweed extracts 30mg at pH 1.2, respectively. The inhibition degree by the extracts at pH 1.2 was similar to that at pH 4.2 and to that by ascorbic acid at pH 1.2. The inhibitory action of the extracts against NDMA formation was not decreased by heat treatment at 80 degree C for 10min, but decreased by the treatment of sodium borohydride. It is assumed that reducing powers of the extracts participated in their inhibitory actions.

Ali M Angelo-Khattar M Farid A Hassan RA Thulesius O

Aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) inhibit prostaglandin synthesis in the ovine ureter.

In: Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids (1993 Nov) 49(5):855-9

The prostaglandins (PGs) synthesized from C-14-arachidonic acid by the homogenized sheep ureter were identified as being prostacyclin (PGI-2), PGF-2 alpha and thromboxane B-2 (TXB-2). The radioimmunoassay (RIA) estimation of 6-keto-PGF-1 alpha, a stable metabolite of PGI-2, confirms that it was the major metabolite or arachidonic acid. Aqueous extracts of fresh garlic (5, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/ml) were shown to inhibit the synthesis of the prostanoids in a dose dependent manner. Fresh garlic extracts (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml) also dose dependently inhibited spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the isolated ureter. Boiled garlic (5, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/ml) had no effect on either ureteral motility or the PG synthesizing capacity of the sheep ureter.

Ali M Mohammed SY: Selective suppression of platelet thromboxane formation with sparing of vascular prostacyclin synthesis by aqueous extract of garlic in rabbits.

PROSTAGLANDINS LEUKOTRIENES MED 1986 Dec; 25(2-3):139-46

It has been suggested that a drug which selectively inhibits platelet thromboxane synthesis, sparing vascular synthesis of prostacyclin, would be more effective as an anti-thrombotic agent. We studied the effect of an aqueous extract of garlic on the production of thromboxane and prostacyclin by rabbit whole blood and aorta in vitro and ex vivo. A dose-dependent inhibition of thromboxane production was observed during blood clotting. Synthesis of prostacyclin was not affected by any concentration of garlic extract used in the experiment. A slight but insignificant reduction in the vascular synthesis of prostacyclin was observed at the highest concentration of garlic used in in vitro experiments. The synthesis of thromboxane by aorta was completely suppressed at all the concentrations of garlic tested. A similar pattern of results was observed after intraperitoneal administration of garlic (1 ml/kg) for one week on the enzymatic synthesis of thromboxane and prostacyclin of these tissues ex-vivo. Aortic synthesis of prostacyclin was significantly increased in the garlic treated rabbits compared to the controls. The data obtained from these rabbit experiments suggested that it may be possible to achieve a selective suppression of thromboxane formation by platelets with sparing of vascular synthesis of prostacyclin by garlic treatment.

Alnaqeeb MA Ali M Thomson M Khater SH Gomes SA al-Hassan JM

Histopathological evidence of protective action of garlic against collagen and arachidonic acid toxicity in rabbits.

In: Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids (1992 Aug) 46(4):301-6

Amagase H Milner JA

Impact of various sources of garlic and their constituents on 7, 12- dimethylbenz[a]anthracene binding to mammary cell DNA.

In: Carcinogenesis (1993 Aug) 14(8):1627-31

Amagase H Milner JA

Impact of dietary lipids on the ability of garlic to inhibit 7, 12- dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) binding to mammary DNA

In: FASEB J (1993) 7(3):A69

Apitz-Castro R Badimon JJ Badimon L

Effect of ajoene, the major antiplatelet compound from garlic, on platelet thrombus formation.< P> In: Thromb Res (1992 Oct 15) 68(2):145-55

Apitz-Castro R Cabrera S Cruz MR Ledezma E Jain MK: Effects of garlic extract and of three pure components isolated from it on human platelet aggregation, arachidonate metabolism, release reaction and platelet ultrastructure.

THROMB RES 1983 Oct 15; 32(2):155-69

We studied the effect of the methanol extract of garlic bulbs (EOG) and of three pure components isolated from it (F1, F2, F3), on human platelet aggregation induced by ADP, epinephrine, collagen, thrombin, arachidonate, PAF, and the ionophore A-23187. Incubation of PRP with EOG, either in methanol or in homologous PPP, inhibits platelet aggregation induced by all of the above mentioned agonists. F1, F2, and F3 also inhibit platelet aggregation, however, F3 was about four times more potent. Addition of EOG or F3 to platelets that have already been irreversibly aggregated by 10 microM ADP, induces rapid deaggregation. Inhibition of aggregation was still present after three hours. The inhibitory effect persisted even after the treated platelets were Gel-Filtered (GFP) or separated from plasma through a metrizamide gradient and resuspended in new homologous PPP. Thrombin- induced release of ATP from GFP was inhibited by 75-80% after EOG or F3 treatment. Incorporation of [3-H]-arachidonate by intact platelets was decreased by 50-60% in treated platelets. However, platelets incubated with the inhibitors after incorporation of radiolabeled arachidonate, although did not aggregate, produced, after thrombin activation similar amounts of radiolabeled TXB2 and lipoxygenase products as the controls. Electron microscopy of inhibited platelets, in the presence of thrombin, showed no degranulation but an increase of spherical forms. Our results suggest that the effects described might be mediate by a perturbation of the physicochemical properties of the plasma membrane rather than by affecting arachidonate or calcium metabolism in the cells. Chemical structures of F1, F2 and F3 have been provisionally assigned: F1 is diallytrisulfide, F2 is 2- vinyl-1, 3-dithiene, and F3 is most probably allyl 1, 5-hexadienyltrisulfide.

Ariga:

Platelet aggregation inhibitor in garlic.

LANCET (1981 Jan 17) 1(8212):150-1

Aro A

[Garlic--a spice or a medicine? (editorial)]

Valkosipuli--mauste vai laake?

In: Duodecim (1992) 108(21):1839-41

Artacho MR Ruiz MD Olea F Olea N

A preliminary study on the action of genus Allium on thyroid 131iodide uptake in rats [letter]

In: Rev Esp Fisiol (1992 Mar) 48(1):59-60

Bakhsh R Chughtai MI: Influence of garlic on serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum total lipids and serum glucose in human subjects. NAHRUNG 1984; 28(2):159-63

Human subjects were used for a garlic experiment. The subjects were given a fat-rich diet for 7 days and on the 8th day the fasting blood was analyzed for serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum total lipids and serum glucose. The human subjects were then given a fat- rich diet with 40 g of garlic for 7 days and on the 15th day the fasting blood was analyzed for the above investigations. On a fat- rich diet the serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and serum total lipids were significantly increased as compared to normally feddiet. When 40 g of garlic was substituted in fat-rich diet for 7 days, the garlic significantly reduced the serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides.

Bhushan S Sharma SP Singh SP Agrawal S Indrayan A Seth P: Effect of garlic on normal blood cholesterol level.

INDIAN J PHYSIOL PHARMACOL 1979 Jul-Sep; 23(3):211-4

The effect of raw garlic on normal blood cholesterol level in males of the age group of 18-35 years was studied. The subjects, who never ingested garlic before, were given 10 g of garlic daily with their diet for two months. Fasting blood samples were investigated in respect of cholesterol before and after two months of garlic intake. Initially the blood cholesterol level ranged between 160-250 mg% which decreased significantly in all the subjects of experimental group after two months of ingestion of garlic. The slight decrease or increase in the blood cholesterol level of control group was not significant. The raw garlic can be advocated for daily ingestion in order to lower one's blood cholesterol level even if it is within normal limits.

Bilgrami KS Sinha KK Sinha AK

Inhibition of aflatoxin production & growth of Aspergillus flavus by eugenol & onion & garlic extracts.

In: Indian J Med Res (1992 Jun) 96:171-5

Block-E; Thiruvazhi-M

Allium chemistry: Synthesis of alk(en)yl 3, 4-dimethyl-2-thienyl disulfides, components of distilled oils & extracts of Allium species.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1993 41(12): 2235-2237

Bordia A: Effect of garlic on blood lipids in patients with coronary heart disease.

AM J CLIN NUTR 1981 Oct; 34(10):2100-3

The study was conducted on two groups of individuals. Group A consisted of 20 healthy volunteers who were fed garlic for 6 months and then followed for another 2 months without garlic. Garlic administration significantly lowered the serum cholesterol and triglycerides while raising the high-density lipoproteins. Group B consisted of 62 patients with coronary heart disease with elevated serum cholesterol. They were randomly divided into two subgroups: B1 was fed garlic for 10 months while B2 served as a control. Garlic decreased the serum cholesterol (p less than 0.05), triglycerides (p less than 0.05) and low density lipoprotein (p less than 0.05) while increasing the high-density fraction (p less than 0.001). The change reached statistically significant levels at the end of 8 months and persisted for the next 2 months of follow-up. Thus, the essential oil of garlic has shown a distinct hypolipidemic action in both healthy individuals and patients of coronary heart disease.

Boullin:

Garlic as a platelet inhibitor.

LANCET (1981 Apr 4) 1(8223):776-7

Bruce A

[Onion and garlic in medicine--a review. Many effects but doubtful use in health food preparations]

In: Lakartidningen (1992 Apr 1) 89(14):1189-90, 1193

Caldwell SH Jeffers LJ Narula OS Lang EA Reddy KR Schiff ER

Ancient remedies revisited: does Allium sativum (garlic) palliate the hepatopulmonary syndrome?

In: J Clin Gastroenterol (1992 Oct) 15(3):248-50

Calvey EM Roach JA Block E

Supercritical fluid chromatography of garlic (Allium sativum) extracts with mass spectrometric identification of allicin.

In: J Chromatogr Sci (1994 Mar) 32(3):93-6

Chen J

The antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of tea, garlic and other natural foods in China: a review.

In: Biomed Environ Sci (1992 Mar) 5(1):1-17

Croci CA Arguello JA Orioli GA

Biochemical changes in garlic (Allium sativum L.) during storage following gamma-irradiation.

In: Int J Radiat Biol (1994 Feb) 65(2):263-6

Chutani SK Bordia A: The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man.

ATHEROSCLEROSIS 1981 Feb-Mar; 38(3-4):417-21

The effect of fried and raw garlic on blood fibrinolytic activity has been compared in 20 patients with ischaemic heart disease. Three blood samples were collected on the first day of the study and similarly on the 2nd and 7th days after garlic administration, either in raw or fried form. Fibrinolytic activity increased by 72% and 63% within 6 h of administration of raw or fried garlic, respectively. The elevated levels were maintained up to 12 h. In the second part of the study, raw or fried garlic was administered for 4 weeks to patients with ischaemic heart disease and fibrinolytic activity was measured at weekly intervals. It showed a sustained increase, rising to 84.8% at the end of 28th day when raw garlic was administered. Similarly, with fried garlic the rise was 72%. The study shows that: (i) both raw and fried garlic significantly enhance fibrinolytic activity (FA); (ii) garlic enhances FA within hours of administration; (iii) FA continues to rise with continued administration of garlic; (iv) frying removes the strong acrid smell of garlic, but preserves its useful effect on FA.

Dalvi RR

Alterations in hepatic phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes by garlic oil in rats.

In: Toxicol Lett (1992 May) 60(3):299-305

Das T Choudhury A Sharma A Talukder G

Modification of clastogenicity of three known clastogens by garlic extract in mice in vivo.

In: Environ Mol Mutagen (1993) 21(4):383-8

A crude extract of Allium sativum (100 mg/kg b.w./day) was administered orally to Swiss albino mice with a normal diet for 30 days. Sodium arsenite, a known cytotoxic agent, was given subcutaneously in normal saline to mice (0.1 mg/kg b.w. = 1/50 of LD-50) on days 7, 14, 21 and 30 of experiments. Chromosomal studies were conducted on bone marrow preparations following the colchicine-air-drying Giemsa schedule. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was significantly lower in animals maintained on crude plant extract as a dietary supplement during exposure to sodium arsenite as compared to those treated with arsenite alone. A crude extract of Allium sativum thus protects against the clastogenicity of sodium arsenite.

Deshpande RG Khan MB Bhat DA Navalkar RG

Inhibition of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates from AIDS patients by garlic (Allium sativum).

In: J Antimicrob Chemother (1993 Oct) 32(4):623-6

Dorant E van den Brandt PA Goldbohm RA Hermus RJ Sturmans F

Garlic and its significance for the prevention of cancer in humans: a critical view.

In: Br J Cancer (1993 Mar) 67(3):424-9

Recently published results of epidemiologic case-control studies inChina and Italy on gastric carcinoma in relation to diet suggest thatconsuming garlic may reduce the risk of gastric cancer. Chemicalconstituents of garlic have been tested for their inhibiting effecton carcinogenesis, using in vitro and in vivo models. In mostexperiments inhibition of tumour growth was established using freshgarlic extract, garlic compounds or synthetically prepared analogs.In this review the strengths and weaknesses of the experiments arediscussed and the outcomes are evaluated to assess the possiblesignificance of garlic or garlic compounds for the prevention ofcancer in humans. It is concluded that evidence from laboratoryexperiments and epidemiologic studies is presently not conclusive asto the preventive activity of garlic. However, the available evidencewarrants further research into the possible role of garlic in theprevention of cancer in humans.

Dorant E van den Brandt PA Goldbohm RA Hermus RJ Sturmans F

Agreement between interview data and a self-administered questionnaire on dietary supplement use.

In: Eur J Clin Nutr (1994 Mar) 48(3):180-8

Dwivedi C Rohlfs S Jarvis D Engineer FN

Chemoprevention of chemically induced skin tumor development by diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide.

In: Pharm Res (1992 Dec) 9(12):1668-70

Egen-Schwind C Eckard R Kemper FH

Metabolism of garlic constituents in the isolated perfused rat liver.

In: Planta Med (1992 Aug) 58(4):301-5

Eilat S Vered Z Mirelman D

[Influence of garlic on blood lipids and blood coagulation]

In: Harefuah (1993 Apr 1) 124(7):418-21

El-Bayoumy K Ip C Chae YH Upadhyaya P Lisk D Prokopczyk B

Mammary cancer chemoprevention by diallyl selenide, a novel organoselenium compound (Meeting abstract).

In: Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1993) 34:A3322

el-Mofty MM Sakr SA Essawy A Abdel Gawad HS

Preventive action of garlic on aflatoxin B1-induced carcinogenesis in the toad Bufo regularis.

In: Nutr Cancer (1994) 21(1):95-100

Estrada CA Young MJ

Patient preferences for novel therapy: an N-of-1 trial of garlic in the treatment for hypertension.

In: J Gen Intern Med (1993 Nov) 8(11):619-21

Farbman KS Barnett ED Bolduc GR Klein JO

Antibacterial activity of garlic and onions: a historical perspective.

In: Pediatr Infect Dis J (1993 Jul) 12(7):613-4

Favaron-F; Castiglioni-C; Di-Lenna-P

Inhibition of some rot fungi polygalacturonases by Allium cepa L. and Allium porrum L. extracts.

Journal of Phytopathology (Berlin) 1993 139(3): 201-206

Extracts of Allium cepa and A. porrum contain factors that inhibit to various extents polygalacturonases (PGs) produced in vitro by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Phoma terrestris, Sclerotium cepivorum, Macropbomina phaseolina, Didymella bryoniae and Phoma lycopersici. The PG inhibition rank changed using leek or onion extract. The inhibition factors are possibly proteins, do not present particular specificity and act against PGs of fungi pathogens and non pathogens for these plant species.

Fogarty M

Garlic's potential role in reducing heart disease.

In: Br J Clin Pract (1993 Mar-Apr) 47(2):64-5

Foushee DB Ruffin J Banerjee U: Garlic as a natural agent for the treatment of hypertension: a preliminary report.

CYTOBIOS 1982; 34(135-36):145-52

The major objective of this study was to re-evaluate the effects of garlic on blood pressure with respect to its ability to provoke a decrease in blood pressure and to determine the length of time that this decrease would require. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were given three doses of garlic extract (0.1 ml/kg, 0.25 ml/kg, and 0.5 ml/kg) by oral injection. The blood pressures of these ether- anaesthetized rats were measured immediately before the extract was given, and then 0.5, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after the extract was given. A blood pressure measurement was also taken at 48 h after extract administration for the 0.5 ml/kg dose. The Gilson Duograph System was used to measure blood pressure by the tail-cuff method. There was a marked decrease in the systolic blood pressure of all of the rats after three doses and the decrease occurred within 30 min in each case. Even though the average decreases for the 0.1 ml/kg and the 0.25 ml/kg doses were calculated as 51, 25 mm Hg and 56.25 mm Hg, respectively, these doses were not sufficient to sustain the blood pressure in a normal range for more than 1 or 2 h. The 0.5 ml/kg dose, showing an average decrease of 65.7 mm Hg, was sufficient to provoke a decrease to a normal level and to sustain this decrease for up to 24 h. The results indicate that garlic is effective as a natural agent for the treatment of hypertension.

Fu N

[Antioxidant action of garlic oil and allitridi]

In: Chung Kuo I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Yuan Hsueh Pao (1993 Aug) 15(4):295-301

The lipid peroxidation and chemiluminescence (CL) of mouse livermitochondria induced by a Vc/FeSO4 reaction system was greatlyinhibited by garlic oil (GO) and allitridi (Alt) at 0.1 mg/ml. HpD-induced photohemolysis was moderately inhibited by garlic oil (25micrograms/ml) and allitridi (20 micrograms/ml). Allitridi (200micrograms/ml) effectively prevented inactivation of red cellmembrane acetylcholine sterase (AchEs) caused by .OH, and at 250micrograms/ml it markedly inhibited blood CL stimulated by crotonoil. Garlic oil (5 micrograms/ml) and allitridi (100 micrograms/ml)significantly increased O2-. production. Allitridi at 0.25 mg/ml and1 mg/ml enhanced lipid peroxidation of mitochondria and blood CLcaused by H2O2.

Gao YM Xie JY Piao YJ

[Ultrastructural observation of intratumoral neutrophils and macrophages induced by garlic oil]

In: Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih (1993 Sep) 13(9):546-8, 518

Garty BZ

Garlic burns.

In: Pediatrics (1993 Mar) 91(3):658-9

Gebhardt R

Multiple inhibitory effects of garlic extracts on cholesterol biosynthesis in hepatocytes.

In: Lipids (1993 Jul) 28(7):613-9

Guo NL Lu DP Woods GL Reed E Zhou GZ Zhang LB Waldman RH

Demonstration of the anti-viral activity of garlic extract against human cytomegalovirus in vitro.

In: Chin Med J (Engl) (1993 Feb) 106(2):93-6

Gupta MK Mittal SR Mathur AK Bhan AK

Garlic--the other side of the coin [letter]

In: Int J Cardiol (1993 Mar) 38(3):333

Gupta-R; Sharma-N-K

Nematicidal properties of garlic, Allium sativum L.

Indian Journal of Nematology (1993) 21(1): 14-18

Nematicidal properties of garlic against Meloidogyne incognita have been studied. The aqueous extract of garlic bulbs suppressed the egg hatch from 88.64 to 98.88 percent at 0.05 to 10 percent concentrations, respectively. Cent percent nematodes larvae were killed at 5 percent concentration of the extract within 168h; whereas, only 61.33 percent larval kill was observed with the leaf extract at the same concentration and after the same interval of time. The distilled oil fraction of garlic proved highly toxic against the larvae of 8 ppm concentration. The dry clove powder at 5 percent concentration also killed cent percent larvae after 72 h.

Gwilt P Lear C Birt D Tempero M Grandjean A Ruddon R Nagel D

Modulation of human acetaminophen metabolism by garlic extract

In: Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1993) 34:A3313

Han J

Highlights of the cancer chemoprevention studies in China.

In: Prev Med (1993 Sep) 22(5):712-22

Hanafy MS Shalaby SM el-Fouly MA Abd el-Aziz MI Soliman FA

Effect of garlic on lead contents in chicken tissues.

In: DTW Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr (1994 Apr) 101(4):157-8

Hatono S Velasco MA Palmer C Wargovich MJ

Chemopreventive activity of sulfur-containing compounds derived from garlic (Meeting abstract).

In: Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1993) 34:A744

Heinle H Betz E

Effects of dietary garlic supplementation in a rat model on atherosclerosis.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1994 May) 44(5):614-7

Holzgartner H Schmidt U Kuhn U

Comparison of the efficacy and tolerance of a garlic preparation vs. bezafibrate.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1992 Dec) 42(12):1473-7

Hong JY Wang ZY Smith TJ Zhou S Shi S Pan J Yang CS

Inhibitory effects of diallyl sulfide on the metabolism and tumorigenicity of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4- (methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in A/J mouse lung.

In: Carcinogenesis (1992 May) 13(5):901-4

Hong JY Wang ZY Smith TJ Zhou S Shi T Pan J Yang CS

INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF DIALLYL SULFIDE (DAS) ON THE METABOLISM AND TUMORIGENICITY OF THE TOBACCO-SPECIFIC CARCINOGEN 4- IN A/J MOUSE LUNGAMINO)-1-(3-PYRIDYL)-1-BUTANONE (NNK)

In: Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1992) 33:A989

Horie T Awazu S Itakura Y Fuwa T

Identified diallyl polysulfides from an aged garlic extract which protects the membranes from lipid peroxidation [letter]

In: Planta Med (1992 Oct) 58(5):468-9

Ip C Lisk D

MAMMARY CANCER PREVENTION BY REGULAR GARLIC AND SELENIUM-ENRICHED GARLIC

In: Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1992) 33:A969

Ip C Lisk DJ

Characterization of tissue selenium profiles and anticarcinogenic responses in rats fed natural sources of selenium-rich products.

In: Carcinogenesis (1994 Apr) 15(4):573-6

Ip C Lisk DJ

Bioavailability of selenium from selenium-enriched garlic.

In: Nutr Cancer (1993) 20(2):129-37

Ip C Lisk DJ Scimeca JA

Potential of food modification in cancer prevention.

In: Cancer Res (1994 Apr 1) 54(7 Suppl):1957s-1959s

Ip C Lisk DJ Stoewsand GS

Mammary cancer prevention by regular garlic and selenium-enriched garlic.

In: Nutr Cancer (1992) 17(3):279-86

Isensee H Rietz B Jacob R

Cardioprotective actions of garlic (Allium sativum).

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1993 Feb) 43(2):94-8

Kwai/Sapec--added to a standard chow for a 10-week period) on thesusceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias under ischemia andreperfusion was investigated in the isolated rat heart (Langendorffpreparation) perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. Theincidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and fibrillation (VF) afterligation of the descending branch of the left coronary artery (LAD)(20 min) was significantly reduced in the garlic group as compared tountreated controls (VT: 0% vs. 35.5%; VF: 50% vs. 88%). The size ofthe ischemic zone was significantly smaller (31.7% vs. 40.9% of totalheart tissue). The reperfusion experiments (5 min after 10 minischemia) revealed similar results (VT: 50% vs. 100%; VF: 30% vs.90%). The time until occurrence of extrasystoles and VT or VF wasprolonged in most cases, and the duration of arrhythmias wasabbreviated. No significant alterations in cardiac membrane fattyacid composition could be found. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase byacetylsalicylic acid (ASA) caused a moderate increase in arrhythmiasand ischemic zone in the garlic group as well as in untreatedcontrols under the conditions of the present experiments. Thus, itseems that the prostaglandin system does not play a predominant rolein the cardioprotective action of garlic. The significance of freeradical scavenging activity of garlic for its antiarrhythmic effectshas to be established.

Jacob BG Schwandt P

[Cholesterol-lowering effects of garlic?]

Cholesterin-senkende Wirkung von Knoblauch?

In: Dtsch Med Wochenschr (1992 Mar 6) 117(10):397-8

Jain RC Konar DB: Effect of garlic oil in experimental cholesterol atherosclerosis. ATHEROSCLEROSIS 1978 Feb; 29(2):125-9

Addition of cholesterol in the diet of male albino rabbits produced hypercholesterolaemia, increased tissue cholesterol, and atheromatous changes in the aorta. Supplementation of garlic oil along with cholesterol significantly inhibited the hypercholesterolaemia, decreased tissue cholesterol and minimised the atheromatous changes in the aorta. These results show that the active constituent(s) in garlic responsible for its anti-atherogenic action is present in the oily fraction of garlic.

Jain AK Vargas R Gotzkowsky S McMahon FG

Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study.

Am J Med (1993 Jun) 94(6):632-5

PURPOSE: To assess the effects of standardized garlic powder tabletson serum lipids and lipoproteins, glucose, and blood pressure.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy adults (19 men, 23 women), mean age of 52 +/- 12 years, with a serum total cholesterol (TC)level of greater than or equal to 220 mg/dL received, in arandomized, double-blind fashion, either 300 mg three times a day ofstandardized garlic powder in tablet form or placebo. Diets andphysical activity were unchanged. This study was conducted in anoutpatient, clinical research unit. RESULTS: The baseline serum TClevel of 262 +/- 34 mg/dL was reduced to 247 +/- 40 mg/dL (p < 0.01)after 12 weeks of standard garlic treatment. Corresponding values forplacebo were 276 +/- 34 mg/dL before and 274 +/- 29 mg/dL afterplacebo treatment. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) wasreduced by 11% by garlic treatment and 3% by placebo (p < 0.05).There were no significant changes in high-density lipoproteincholesterol, triglycerides, serum glucose, blood pressure, and othermonitored parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with standardized garlic900 mg/d produced a significantly greater reduction in serum TC andLDL-C than placebo. The garlic formulation was well tolerated withoutany odor problems.

Johansson BW

[Garlic as cultural historical medicinal plant--truth or superstition?]

Vitlok som kulturhistorisk medicinalvaxt--sanning eller overtro?

In: Lakartidningen (1992 Sep 16) 89(38):3030, 3035

Kagawa K Matsutaka H Yamaguchi Y Fukuhama C: Garlic extract inhibits the enhanced peroxidation and production of lipids in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.

PN J PHARMACOL 1986 Sep; 42(1):19-26

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) enhances lipid peroxidation, resulting in triglyceride accumulation in the liver. In this report, we studied the therapeutic, but not the preventive, effect of garlic extract on CCl4-intoxicated liver, in comparison to the effect of vitamin E. Garlic extract was given orally to mice in the dose of 10, 100 or 500 mg/kg at 6 hr after CCl4 administration. The increased conjugated-diene level was diminished significantly to 82% by the 100 mg/kg extract, and also thiobarbituric acid-reactivity was inhibited by allthe doses of the extract. In addition to the above mentioned effects, the high doses of garlic extract lowered hepatic triglyceride and lipid contents. Highly significant and positive correlation was observed between hepatic triglyceride content and conjugated-diene level in the lipid fraction of the liver. Besides, vitamin E at the dose of 25 mg/kg inhibited only lipid peroxidation. We, therefore, conclude that not only is garlic extract effective on diminution of lipid peroxide and on alteration of peroxidative status to more reductive condition like the effect of vitamin E, but it also inhibits hepatic triglyceride accumulation in injured liver.

Kaku H Goldstein IJ Van Damme EJ Peumans WJ

New mannose-specific lectins from garlic (Allium sativum) and ramsons (Allium ursinum) bulbs.

In: Carbohydr Res (1992 May 22) 229(2):347-53

Kenzelmann R Kade F

Limitation of the deterioration of lipid parameters by a standardized garlic-ginkgo combination product. A multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind study.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1993 Sep) 43(9):978-81

Kiesewetter H Jung F Jung EM Blume J Mrowietz C Birk A Koscielny J Wenzel E

Effects of garlic coated tablets in peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

In: Clin Investig (1993 May) 71(5):383-6

Langer JW

[Drug information: garlic is healthy--but the jungle of preparations is dense]

In: Sygeplejersken (1992 Mar 18) 92(12):21

Lawson LD Ransom DK Hughes BG

Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products.

In: Thromb Res (1992 Jan 15) 65(2):141-56

Lee ES Steiner M Lin R

Thioallyl compounds: potent inhibitors of cell proliferation.

In: Biochim Biophys Acta (1994 Mar 10) 1221(1):73-7

Legnani C Frascaro M Guazzaloca G Ludovici S Cesarano G Coccheri S

Effects of a dried garlic preparation on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation in healthy subjects.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1993 Feb) 43(2):119-22

Lerner DJ Hulley SB

Does eating garlic lower cholesterol? [letter; comment]

In: Ann Intern Med (1994 Jun 1) 120(11):969-70

Lewin G Popov I

Antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract. 2nd communication: Inhibition of the Cu(2+)-initiated oxidation of low density lipoproteins.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1994 May) 44(5):604-7

Lin XY Liu JZ Milner JA

Dietary garlic suppresses DNA adducts caused by N-nitroso compounds.

In: Carcinogenesis (1994 Feb) 15(2):349-52

Lin XY Liu JZ Milner JA

Dietary garlic powder suppresses the in vivo formation of DNA adducts induced by n-nitroso compounds in liver and mammary tissues.

In: FASEB J (1992) 6(4):A1392

Liu J Lin RI Milner JA

Inhibition of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors and DNA adducts by garlic powder.

In: Carcinogenesis (1992 Oct) 13(10):1847-51

Ludeke BI Domine F Ohgaki H Kleihues P

Modulation of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine bioactivation by diallyl sulfide in vivo.

In: Carcinogenesis (1992 Dec) 13(12):2467-70

Lun ZR Burri C Menzinger M Kaminsky R

Antiparasitic activity of diallyl trisulfide (Dasuansu) on human and animal pathogenic protozoa (Trypanosoma sp., Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia) in vitro.

In: Ann Soc Belg Med Trop (1994 Mar) 74(1):51-9

Martin N Bardisa L Pantoja C Roman R Vargas M

Experimental cardiovascular depressant effects of garlic (Allium sativum) dialysate.

In: J Ethnopharmacol (1992 Sep) 37(2):145-9

McFadden JP White IR Rycroft RJ

Allergic contact dermatitis from garlic.

In: Contact Dermatitis (1992 Nov) 27(5):333-4

McMahon FG Vargas R

Can garlic lower blood pressure? A pilot study.

In: Pharmacotherapy (1993 Jul-Aug) 13(4):406-7

Mennella JA Beauchamp GK

The effects of repeated exposure to garlic-flavored milk on the nursling's behavior.

In: Pediatr Res (1993 Dec) 34(6):805-8

Morioka N Morton DL and Irie RF

A protein fraction from aged garlic extract enhances cytotoxicity and proliferation of human lymphocytes mediated by interleukin-2 and concanavalin A (Meeting abstract).

In: Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1993) 34:A3297

Morowitz: Between gargoylism and gas gangrene. HOSP PRACT (1981 Sep) 16(9):173, 176

Mohammad SF Woodward SC: Characterization of a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation and release reaction isolated from allium sativum (garlic).

THROMB RES 1986 Dec 15; 44(6):793-806

When added to platelet-rich plasma, aqueous extracts of garlic inhibited platelet aggregation and the release reaction. Subsequent experiments designed to characterize the inhibitory component revealed that the inhibitory activity was i) associated with small molecular-weight components, ii) the inhibitory component possessed the typical garlic odor and contained an abundance of sulfur, iii) the inhibitory activity could be extracted with organic solvents, and iv) temperatures above 56 degrees C and alkaline pH above 8.5 quickly destroyed the inhibitory activity. The Rf value of the major inhibitory component after thin-layer chromatographic separation was similar to that of allicin, an unique thiosulfinate in garlic previously shown to possess strong antibiotic and antifungal properties. Allicin was synthesized. On thin-layer chromatographic plates, allicin co-migrated with the inhibitory component in garlic. At 10 microM concentration, allicin inhibited completely platelet aggregation and the release reaction. Comparative studies suggest that the major platelet aggregation and release inhibitor in garlic may be allicin.

Mutsch-Eckner M Erdelmeier CA Sticher O Reuter HD

A novel amino acid glycoside and three amino acids from Allium sativum.

In: J Nat Prod (1993 Jun) 56(6):864-9

Nagabhushan M Line D Polverini PJ Solt DB

Anticarcinogenic action of diallyl sulfide in hamster buccal pouch and forestomach.

In: Cancer Lett (1992 Oct 21) 66(3):207-16

Oelkers B Diehl H Liebig H

In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P-450 reductases from pig liver microsomes by garlic extracts.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1992 Feb) 42(2):136-9

Orellana A Kawada ME Morales MN Vargas L Bronfman M

Induction of peroxisomal fatty acyl-coenzyme A oxidase and total carnitine acetyl-coenzyme A transferase in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes by garlic extracts.

In: Toxicol Lett (1992 Jan) 60(1):11-7

Osler: Garlic--natural remedy for atherosclerosis-related symptoms?

UGESKR LAEGER (1985 Jan 14) 147(3):151-5

Pan J Hong JY Ma BL Ning SM Paranawithana SR Yang CS

Transcriptional activation of cytochrome P450 2B1/2 genes in rat liver by diallyl sulfide, a compound derived from garlic.

In: Arch Biochem Biophys (1993 May) 302(2):337-42

Peng-J-P; Wang-X; Yao-X-S

Studies on two new furostanol glycosides from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica (1993) 28(7): 526-531

Further studies on the active constituents in the bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge led to the isolation and structural determination of two new furostanol saponin macrostemonoside E and F. On the basis of chemical evidences and spectral analysis (UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13-C-NMR and FAB-MS), the structure of macrostemonoside E(I) was elucidated as (25R)-26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5-alpha-furost-20(22)-ene-3-beta, 26-diol-3-O-bea-D-glucopyranosyl (1 fwdarw 2) (beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 fwdarw 3))-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 fwdarw 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside; macrostemonoside F(II) was established to be (25R)-26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5-beta-furost-20(22)-ene-3-beta, 26-diol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 fwdarw 2)-beta-D-galactoside. Preliminary pharmacological tests showed that bothmacrostemonoside E and F could strongly inhibit ADP-induced human platelet aggregation in vitro. The IC-50 of the former was 0.417 mM and that of the latter was 0.020 mM.

Phelps S Harris WS

Garlic supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility.

In: Lipids (1993 May) 28(5):475-7

Platt D Brosche T

[A cholesterol-lowering effect of garlic? (letter)]

In: Dtsch Med Wochenschr (1992 Jun 12) 117(24):962-3

Popov I Blumstein A Lewin G

antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract. 1st communication: Direct detection using the photochemiluminescence.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1994 May) 44(5):602-4

The antioxidant effect of the aqueous extract from the garlicpreparation Kwai was investigated using the method ofphotochemiluminescence. The method is based on the photo-induced, superoxide radical mediated autoxidation of luminol, and allows forthe capability of substances to inhibit the free radical processes inthis test system to be quantified, and hence for their antioxidantproperties in respect of a standard substance (e.g. ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol) to be compared. The aqueous extract obtained from 1mg of the garlic preparation was found to be anti-oxidatively aseffective as 30 nmol of ascorbic acid and/or 3.6 nmol of alpha-tocopherol.

Rainov NG Burkert W

Spontaneous shrinking of a macroprolactinoma.

In: Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) (1993 Jan) 36(1):17-9

Randerson K

Cardiology update. Garlic and the healthy heart.

In: Nurs Stand (1993 Apr 14-20) 7(30):51

Reeve VE Bosnic M Rozinova E Boehm-Wilcox C

A garlic extract protects from ultraviolet B (280-320 nm) radiation- induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity.

In: Photochem Photobiol (1993 Dec) 58(6):813-7

Lyophilized aged garlic extract has been incorporated at concentrations of 0.1% 1%, and 4% by weight into semipurified powdered diets and fed to hairless mice. Under moderate UVB exposure conditions resulting in 58% suppression of the systemic contact hypersensitivity response in control-fed mice, a dose-responsive protection was observed in the garlic-fed mice; contact hypersensitivity in the UVB-exposed mice fed 4% garlic extract was suppressed by only 19%. If the UVB exposure was replaced by topical application of one of a series of lotions containing increasing concentrations of cis-urocanic acid, a dose-responsive suppression of contact hypersensitivity was demonstrated in control-fed mice (urocanic acid at 25, 50, 100 and 200 mu-g per mouse resulting in 22-46% suppression). Mice fed a diet containing 1% aged garlic extract were partially protected from cis-urocanic acid-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity, with greater protection from the lower concentrations of urocanic acid. Mice fed a diet containing 4% aged garlic extract were protected from all concentrations of urocanic acid. The results indicate that aged garlic extract contains ingredient(s) that protect from UVB-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity and suggest that the mechanism of protection is by antagonism if the cis-urocanic acid mediation of this form of immunosuppression.

Rietz B Isensee H Strobach H Makdessi S Jacob R

Cardioprotective actions of wild garlic (allium ursinum) in ischemia and reperfusion.

In: Mol Cell Biochem (1993 Feb 17) 119(1-2):143-50

Rosin S Tuorila H Uutela A

Garlic: a sensory pleasure or a social nuisance?

In: Appetite (1992 Oct) 19(2):133-43

Rotzsch W Richter V Rassoul F Walper A

[Postprandial lipemia under treatment with Allium sativum. Controlled double-blind study of subjects with reduced HDL2-cholesterol]

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1992 Oct) 42(10):1223-7

Sainani GS Desai DB Natu MN Katrodia KM Valame VP Sainani PG:

Onion, garlic, and experimental atherosclerosis.

JPN HEART J 1979 May; 20(3):351-7

Forty-two healthy male albino rabbits weighing around 1 Kg were divided into 4 groups. Group I (8)- fed on normal stock diet, Group II (8)- fed on stock diet plus cholesterol (0.5 gm in 5 ml of olive oil). Group III (15)- received stock diet plus cholesterol plus garlic (0.25 gm) juice. Group IV (11)- received stock diet plus cholesterol plus onion (2.5 gm) juice. The animals were closely observed and followed for 16 weeks. Approximately every 4 weeks, blood samples were collected for estimation of various parameters (S. cholesterol, S. triglycerides, S. lipoproteins, S. phospolipids, and fibrinolytic activity). At the end of experiment, animals were sacrificed and degree of aortic atherosclerosis was graded (grade 0 to 4) in different groups and compared. Experimental study revealed that both garlic and onion (garlic more than onion) had significant effect in inhibiting the rise in S. cholesterol, S. triglycerides, S. beta lipoproteins, and S. phospolipids and significant effect in enhancing the fibrinolytic activity. The beta: alpha ratio was altered favourably and the ratio was kept close to normal. As regards the degree of aortic atherosclerosis as seen on post mortem, it was significantly less in garlic and onion group when compared with pure cholesterol group.

Sharma:

Effects of garlic extract and of three pure components isolated from it on human platelet aggregation, arachidonate metabolism, release reaction and platelet ultrastructure--comments

THROMB RES (1985 Feb 1) 37(3):489-90

Sendl A Elbl G Steinke B Redl K Breu W Wagner H

Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum.

In: Planta Med (1992 Feb) 58(1):1-7

Sendl A Schliack M Loser R Stanislaus F Wagner H

Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in vitro by extracts and isolated compounds prepared from garlic and wild garlic.

In: Atherosclerosis (1992 May) 94(1):79-85

Shenoy NR Choughuley AS

Inhibitory effect of diet related sulphydryl compounds on the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines.

In: Cancer Lett (1992 Aug 31) 65(3):227-32

Shoetan A Augusti KT Joseph PK:

Hypolipidemic effects of garlic oil in rats fed ethanol and a high lipid diet.

EXPERIENTIA 1984 Mar 15; 40(3):261-3

Feeding of ethanol and a high fat-high cholesterol diet to rats markedlyincreased the total lipids in the liver, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the serum, liver and kidneys. However, when ethanol mixed with 0.5% garlic oil was fed to animals maintained on the high fat-high cholesterol diet, these lipid levels were significantly reduced to levels near to those seen in untreated control rats. Garlic oil did not reduce the serum albumin or the total proteins of liver, kidneys or serum when fed along with ethanol. Probably the garlic oil enhances the catabolism of dietary cholesterol and fatty acids.

Silagy C Neil A

Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis.

In: J R Coll Physicians Lond (1994 Jan-Feb) 28(1):39-45

Srivastava KC Tyagi OD

Effects of a garlic-derived principle (ajoene) on aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets.

In: Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids (1993 Aug) 49(2):587-95

Sumi S Tsuneyoshi T Furutani H

Novel rod-shaped viruses isolated from garlic, Allium sativum,

possessing a unique genome organization.

In: J Gen Virol (1993 Sep) 74 ( Pt 9):1879-85

Sundaram SG Milner JA

Impact of organosulfur compounds in garlic on canine mammary tumor cells in culture.

In: Cancer Lett (1993 Oct 15) 74(1-2):85-90

Six organosulfur compounds found in garlic were examined for their ability to alter the growth of canine mammary tumor cells (CMT-13) in culture. Water-soluble organosulfur compounds (S-allyl-cysteine, S-ethyl-cysteine and S-propyl-cysteine) did not significantly alter the growth of CMT-13 cells when added to cultures at 1.0 mM or less. However, oil-soluble organosulfur compounds (diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide) markedly inhibited growth. Increasing addition of diallyl disulfide (DADS) resulted in a progressive decrease in CMT-13 cell growth. Addition of glutathione before DADS markedly decreased the severity of the growth inhibition. Treatment with DL-buthionine-SR-sulfoxamine, a specific inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, accentuated the growth inhibition caused by DADS. These studies show that some organosulfur compounds found in garlic are effective inhibitors of the growth of the neoplastic CMT-13 cell. The inhibitory effects of these compounds are modified by intracellular glutathione.

Sundaram SG Milner JA

Antitumor effects of organosulfur compounds present in garlic against canine mammary tumor cells (Meeting abstract).

In: FASEB J (1992) 6(4):A1391

Sutabhaha S Suttajit M Niyomca P

Studies of aflatoxins in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

In: Kitasato Arch Exp Med (1992 Apr) 65(1):45-52

Tadi PP

ANTICARCINOGENIC, ANTITUMOR, AND ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES OF ALLIUM SATIVUM

In: Diss Abstr Int [B] (1992) 52(8):4144

Takada N Matsuda T Otoshi T Yano Y Otani S Hasegawa T Nakae D Konishi Y Fukushima S

Enhancement by organosulfur compounds from garlic and onions of diethylnitrosamine-induced glutathione S-transferase positive foci in the rat liver.

In: Cancer Res (1994 Jun 1) 54(11):2895-9

Tatarintsev A Makarova T Karamov E Kornilayeva G Vrzheshch P Schegolev A Yershov D Turgiev A

Ajoene blocks HIV-mediated syncytia formation: possible approach to 'anti-adhesion' therapy of AIDS.

In: Int Conf AIDS (1992 Jul 19-24) 8(3):39 (abstract no. PuA 6173)

OBJECTIVES: Ajoene, (E, Z)-4, 5, 9-trithiadodeca-1, 6, 11-triene-9-oxide, isolated from extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) has previously beenshown to inhibit platelet aggregation by inactivating allostericallythe platelet integrin, GP IIb/IIIa (Apitz-Castro R et al: BBRC 1986141:145). Structural and functional similarity of integrins led us topropose that ajoene may also inhibit adhesive interactions ofleukocytes. Since integrin-mediated formation of cell-to-cellcontacts has been shown to be an essential prerequisite for membranefusion (Hildreth JEK, Orentas RJ: Science 1989 244:1075) we alsoattempted to evaluate

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Whilst working in conservation and lecturing in ecology and the eco-crisis for the University of Wales, David Hoffman became convinced that to heal the world, to embrace planetary......more
 
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