Chapter 8 Chiropractic and Manual Medicine
- 1. From internal AMA documents introduced into evidence by the chiropractic plaintiffs at the Wilk v. AMA trial. Data from the federally-mandated study study was to be used to determine whether chiropractic should be included in Medicare, the government-sponsored health insurance program for older Americans. Passage of the Corman-Stone bill in 1973 brought chiropractic services into the Medicare system.
- 2. Eddy, David M. Quoted in Chiropractic: A Review of Current Research. Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research. Arlington, VA. p.1. Dr. Eddy, a medical physician, is Professor of Health Policy and Management at Duke University.
- 3. Eisenberg, David et. al."Unconventional Medicine in the United States: Prevalence, Costs and Patterns of Use." New England Journal of Medicine. January 28, 1993. 328: 246-252.
- 4. Leach, Robert. The Chiropractic Theories: A Synopsis of Scientific Research. p. 24. Leach cites as his source an article by Elizabeth Lomax called "Manipulative therapy: a historical perspective from ancient times to the modern era," which appeared in The Research Status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy, published by the United States Government Printing Office (1975), pp. 11-17. This monograph contains the proceedings of a conference on spinal manipulation, convened by the National Institute for Neurological and Communicable Diseases and Stroke (NINCDS).
- 5. Copland-Griffiths, Michael Dynamic Chiropractic Today. pp. 119-120.
- 6. Ibid. pp. 121-122.
- 7. Leach. op. cit. p. 25
- 8. Gibbons, Russell. "The Evolution of Chiropractic: Medical and Social Protest in America." in Modern Developments in the Principles and Practice of Chiropractic, edited by Scott Haldeman. p. 23.
- 9. Sharpless, Seth. "Susceptibility of Spinal Roots to Compression Block." In Goldstein, Murray (editor): The Research Status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy. Washington, DC, Government Printing Office, 1975, pp. 155-161.
- 10. Kirkaldy-Willis, W, Cassidy, J. "Spinal Manipulation in the Treatment of Low-Back Pain." Canadian Family Physician 31:535-540. 1985.
- 11. Meade, T.W., Dyer, S., et. al. "Low Back Pain of Mechanical Origin: Randomized Comparison of Chiropractic and Hospital Outpatient Treatment," British Medical Journal, June 2, 1990. Vol. 300, pp. 1431-1437.
- 12. Dr. T. W. Meade, interviewed on a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) program, as quoted in Chiropractic: A Review of Current Research. Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research. 1992.
- 13. Koes, B.W., Bouter, L.M., et. al. "Randomised Clinical Trial of Manipulative Therapy and Physiotherapy for Persistent Back and Neck Complaints: Results of One Year Follow Up." British Medical Journal. March 7, 1992, Volume 304, pp. 601-605.
- 14. Ebrall, P.S. "Mechanical Low-Back Pain: A Comparison of Medical and Chiropractic Managment Within the Victorian WorkCare Scheme," Chiropractic Journal of Australia, June 1992, Volume 22, Number 2, pp. 47-53.
- 15. Jarvis, K.B., Phillips, R.B., et. al. "Cost per Case Comparison of Back Injury Claims of Chiropractic versus Medical Management for Conditions with Identical Diagnostic Codes," Journal of Occupational Medicine, August 1991, Volume 33, Number 8, pp. 847-852.