* High-risk operations
- Major surgery, particularly in the elderly
- Aortic and other major vascular surgery
- Peripheral vascular surgery
- Any surgery with large fluid changes and/or blood loss.
* Intermediate-risk operations
- Head-and-neck surgery
- Abdominal surgery
- Chest surgery
- Orthopaedic surgery
- Prostate surgery
- Carotid endarterectomy (to clear blockage in the carotid artery).
[ACC/AHA Guideline Update on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Update the 1996 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery)]