Join Now!      Login

Whole Person Wellness Program Wellness Model
Skip Navigation Links
Health Centers
Key Services
Breathing ?
Which of the following health conditions is not directly benefited by breathing exercises?
High blood pressure

 Herbal Medicine: Kidney Stones - Urinary Calculus 
  • Number of Americans affected by kidney stones yearly -- 1,000,000
  • Portion of U.S. population affected annually -- 0.5%
  • Portion of population who will have at least one kidney stone --3%
  • Of these, how many will have at least one recurrence -- 75%
  • Relative risk of forming a second stone -- 60% to 80% over next 10 years (50% over next 5 years)
  • Rate of Stone production for recurrent stone formers -- one stone every 2 to 3 years
  • Portion of stone patients with very aggressive disease -- 10% to 15% (10 or more stones)
  • Incidence of kidney stones in areas of "soft" water -- Higher
  • Peak seasonal occurrence --June to August
  • Likelihood of a patient eventually forming a stone if his brother already had one -- 50%
  • Men:Women 4:1
  • Hospitalization in approx. 20%. Rarely death or renal failure.
  • Calcium containing stones are most common. 85% in men, 65% in women.
  • Stones pass spontaneously in 80%. If stone > 8 mm, only 10 % will pass.
  • Complications: Renal failure if unrelieved obstruction for > 7 days.

    3% of all Americans will suffer from a kidney stone at some time in their life, and half of these people will suffer recurrences over the following ten or more years. It is thus a disease which touches a significant portion of the population.

    Normal urine contains predictable amounts of calcium, magnesium, uric acid, and other by-products of metabolism. Normally these substances are in solution and pass into the bladder. Under certain conditions of high saturation, and in a complex chemical environment that is not yet completely understood, the chemicals may crystallize and form a stone-like particle in the kidney. Once formed it stimulates continued crystallization. If the stone remains in the kidney, no symptoms may occur, although there may be microscopic signs of blood in the urine. Once a piece of the stone breaks off and enters the ureter leading to the bladder, prompt spasms occur.

    Urine of most normal people is supersaturated with respect to calcium oxalate, so all people can potentially form such stones. Normal urine is not supersaturated with respect to uric acid, cystine or struvite. Conditions that raise calcium oxalate supersaturation raise the risk of calcium oxalate stones. Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria are two main clinical examples, and both can result from many diseases. Hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, sarcoidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and "idiopathic" hypercalciuria all are causes of hypercalciuria. Hyperoxaluria may be due to overproduction, from hereditary disorders of metabolism, or be acquired from intestinal disease or diet.

    Apart from overexcretion, supersaturation can be increased by abnormal interactions between urine ions. Urine citrate forms a soluble salt with calcium that normally reduces free calcium ion levels appreciably; low urine citrate from bowel disease, renal tubular acidosis, and, perhaps, dietary and hereditary causes can raise calcium oxalate supersaturation and promote stones. Normal women excrete more citrate and less calcium than normal men, perhaps a reason why men form stones more often. Low urine pH from hereditary causes or bowel disease promotes uric acid stones; high pH, from alkali, drugs, or renal tubular acidosis increases calcium phosphate supersaturation.

    An infection of the urinary tract can cause cellular debris to act as a focus or "seed"on which crystals can form. Bacterial action makes the urine more alkaline, resulting in the deposit of phosphates, which form calcium phosphate stones. Excessive uric acid, increased excretion of calcium by the kidney, combined with an increased insolubility of calcium in the urine, can also cause stones to form. Long-term confinement to bed or even a chronic lack of exercise may encourage mobilization of calcium from bones into the blood, increasing calcium levels in the urine. Similarly, steroids can increase blood and urine calcium levels. An inherited disposition and excess weight can also predispose you to kidney stones.

  • CONTINUED    1  2  3  Next   
     Comments Add your comment 

     About The Author
    David Hoffmann BSc (Hons), MNIMHWhilst working in conservation and lecturing in ecology and the eco-crisis for the University of Wales, David Hoffman became convinced that to heal the world, to embrace planetary wholeness and responsibility for it......more
     From Our Friends
    Popular & Related Products
    Popular & Featured Events
    Error Reading Event Calendar
    Dimensions of Wellness
    Wellness, Eating, dimension!

    Home       Wellness       Health A-Z       Alternative Therapies       Wellness Inventory       Wellness Center
    Healthy Kitchen       Healthy Woman       Healthy Man       Healthy Child       Healthy Aging       Nutrition Center       Fitness Center
    Discount Lab Tests      First Aid      Global Health Calendar      Privacy Policy     Contact Us
    Disclaimer: The information provided on HealthWorld Online is for educational purposes only and IS NOT intended as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek professional medical advice from your physician or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
    Are you ready to embark on a personal wellness journey with our whole person approach?
    Learn More/Subscribe
    Are you looking to create or enhance a culture of wellness in your organization?
    Learn More
    Do you want to become a wellness coach?
    Learn More
    Free Webinar