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Breathing ?
Which of the following health conditions is not directly benefited by breathing exercises?
Anxiety
Fatigue
Diabetes
High blood pressure

 
 
 Herbal Materia Medica: Hawthorn 
 
Crataegus oxyacantha & C. monogyna


Part used

Whilst the berries are the most often used part of this shrub, the flowers and leaves may also have a role to play.

Constituents

Its constituents highlight the importance of flavones and flavonoids in many remedies that have a healing impact upon the cardio-vascular system. There are two main groups:

  • flavonoids - flavonoglycosyls, hyperoside, rutin
  • oligomeric procyanadins, 1-epicatechol.
This invaluable heart remedies does not contain cardiac glycosides.

Acantolic-Acid
Acetyl-Choline
Acetyl-Vitexin-4'-Rhamnoside
Adenine
Adenosine
Aesculin
Aluminum
Aminopurine
Amygdalin
Ascorbic-Acid
Caffeic-Acid
Calcium
Carbohydrates
Beta-Carotene
Catechin
Catechin-Tannins
Chlorogenic-Acid
Choline
Chromium
Citric-Acid
Cobalt
Crataegolic-Acid
Trans-Crataegolic-Acid
Dimethylamine
Epicatechin
L-Epicatechol
Ethanolamine
Ethylamine
Fat
Fiber
Glucose
Guanine
2, , 3, 3', 4, 4', 5, 7-Hepta-Hydroxyavanbioside
Hyperoside
Iron
Isoamylamine
Isobutylamine
Lauric-Acid
Leucoanthocyanidin
Linoleic-Acid
Linolenic-Acid
Lipase
Magnesium
Manganese
O-Methoxy-Beta-Phenethylamine
Neoategolic-Acid
Niacin
Nonacosan-10-Ol
Octacosane
Oxalic-Acid
Palmitic-Acid
Pectin
Beta-Phenethylamine
Phlobaphene
Phosphorus
Potassium
Procyanidin
Protein
Quercetin-3-Rhamnogalactoside
Quercitrin
Rhamnose
Riboavin
Rutin
Selenium
Silicon
Beta-Sitosterol
Beta-Sitosterol
Sodium
Sorbitol
Starch
Sugar
Tartaric-Acid
Thiamin
Tin
Trimethylamine
Tyramine
Uric-Acid
Ursolic-Acid
Vitexin
Vitexin-4'-Rhamnoside
Vitexin-4', L-Rhamno-D-Glucoside
Vitexin-4', 7-Di-D-Glucoside
Zinc

Aesculin ;Esculin; Aesculin; Crataegin;
This 6-glucoside of esculetin is widely occurring; e.g., in the bark of Aesculus hippocastanum , in the bark of Crataegus oxyacantha, in the bark of Fraxinus spp. and in the leaves of Bursaria spinosa.

Inhibits chemically induced carcinogenic action. It is a growth inhibitor of Bacillus subtilis.

Caffeic acid;; 3, 4-Dihydroxycinnamic acid
Widespread occurrence: e.g., in green and roasted coffee beans (Coffea arabica) and in the root bark of Cinchona cuprea, in Conium maculatum , and in the resin of various conifers. Also, it occurs in herbaceous plants such as Digitalis purpurea , the leaves and flowers of Papaver somniferum, the roots of Taraxacum officinale, and the flowers of Anthemis nobilis and Achillea millefolium . It often occurs in bound form as chlorogenic acid .

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 About The Author
David Hoffmann BSc (Hons), MNIMHWhilst working in conservation and lecturing in ecology and the eco-crisis for the University of Wales, David Hoffman became convinced that to heal the world, to embrace planetary wholeness and responsibility for it......more
 
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