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 Interviews with Nutritional Experts: Health Risks from Processed Foods and Trans Fats: Part II  
Interview with Dr. Mary Enig
   as interviewed by Richard A. Passwater PhD

1. Enig MG, Munn RJ, Keeney M. Dietary Fat and Cancer Trends - - A critique. Federation Proceedings 1978; 37:2215- 2220.

2. Passwater RA. The New Supernutrition. New York: Pocket Books, 1991:

3. Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women. Lancet 1993; 341:581- 585.

4. Sampugna J, Casterline J , Enig MG, Keeney M. Influence of a margarine containing diet on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 1980; 57:Abstract # 178:

5. Enig MG. Modification of Membrane Lipid Composition and Mixed- function oxidases in mouse liver Microsomes by Dietary trans fatty acids. College Park, MD: Doctoral Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1984:

6a. Ostlund- Lindqvist AM, Albanus L, Croon LB. Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on microsomal enzymes and membranes. Lipids 1985; 20:620- 624.

6b. Ponder DL, Green NR. Effects of dietary fats and butylated hydroxytoluene on mutagen activation in rats. Cancer Res 1985; 45:558- 560.

6c. Hogan ML, Shamsuddin AM. Large intestinal carcinogenesis. I. Promotional effect of dietary fatty acid isomers in the rat model. J Natl Cancer Inst 1984; 73:1293- 1296.

7. Barnard DE, Sampugna J, Berlin E, Bhathena SJ, Knapka JJ. Dietary trans fatty acids modulate erythrocyte membrane fatty acyl composition and insulin binding in monkeys. J Nutr Biochem 1990; 1:190- 195.

8. Kuller LH. Trans fatty acids and dieting [letter]. Lancet 1993; 341:1093- 1094.

9. Mantey S. The effect of trans fatty acids on some Murine T and B Cell functions. College Park, MD: Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, 1985:

10a. Koletzko B, Muller J. Cis- and trans- isomeric fatty acids in plasma lipids of newborn infants and their mothers. Biol Neonate 1990; 57:172- 178.

10b. Koletzko B. [Supply, metabolism and biological effects of trans- isomeric fatty acids in infants] Zufuhr, Stoffwechsel und biologische Wirkungen trans- isomerer Fettsauren bei Sauglingen. Nahrung 1991; 35:229- 283.

10c. Koletzko B. Trans fatty acids may impair biosynthesis of long- chain polyunsaturates and growth in man. Acta Paediatr 1992; 81:302- 306.

11a. Teter BB, Sampugna J, Keeney M. Milk fat depression in C57Bl/6J mice consuming partially hydrogenated fat. J Nutr 1990; 120:818- 824.

11b. Teter BB. Alterations in milk fat percent and composition by isomeric fatty acids. College Park, MD: Doctoral Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1989:

12. Atal S. The effects of dietary trans fatty acids on adipose tissue composition and metabolism in male C57Bl/6J mice. College Park, MD: Doctoral Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1990:

13a. Holman RT. The importance of double bond position in the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids. In: Emken EA, Dutton HJ, eds. Geometrical and Positional Fatty Acid Isomers. Champaign, IL: Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 1979:283- 302.

13b. Holman RT, Pusch F, Svingen B, Dutton HJ. Unusual isomeric polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver phospholipids of rats fed hydrogenated oil. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88:4830- 4834.

14. Pallansch LA. Metabolic Fate and Effect of Dietary Trans Fatty Acids. College Park, MD: Doctoral Dissertation, University of Maryland, 1983:

15. Anderson JT, Grande F, Keys A. Hydrogenated Fats in the Diet and Lipids of Man. J Nutr 1961; 75:388- 394.

16. van den Reek MM, Craig- Schmidt MC, Clark AJ. Use of published analyses of food items to determine dietary trans octadecenoic acid. J Am Diet Assoc 1986; 86:1391- 1394.

17. van den Reek MM, Craig- Schmidt MC, Weete JD, Clark AJ. Fat in the diets of adolescent girls with emphasis on isomeric fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43:530- 537.

18. Alam SQ, Ren YF, Alam BS. Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on some membrane- associated enzymes and receptors in rat heart. Lipids 1989; 24:39- 44.

19. Watkins BA. Bioactive Lipids in Poultry. Washington, D.C.: FASEB Conference: Current Topics in Avian Lipid Met. Bio., 1990

20. Wansil BJ, Herbein JH, Watkins BA. Effects of Dietary and Ruminally- Derived trans C18:1 Content. FASEB J 1991; 5:A1306, Abst. 5427:

21. Mensink RP, Zock PL, Katan MB, Hornstra G. Effect of dietary cis and trans fatty acids on serum lipoprotein[a] levels in humans. J Lipid Res 1992; 33:1493- 1501.

22. Enig MG. Trans Fatty Acids in the Food Supply: A comprehensive report covering 60 years of research. Silver Spring, MD: Enig Assoc., 1993:

23. Passwater RA. Nutrient Interaction in Heart Disease: An interview with Dr. David Kritchevsky. Whole Foods 1993; (6):22- 25,65.

24. Kritchevsky D. Diet and cholesteremia. Lipids 1977; 12:49- 52.

25. Blackburn GL, Kater G, Mascioli EA, Kowalchuk M, Babayan VK, Bistrian BR. A Reevaluation of Coconut Oil's Effect on Serum Cholesterol and Atherogenesis. J Philippine Med Assoc 1989; 65:144- 152.

26. Anonymous. McDonald's Should Revert to Old Fries, says CNI. Nutrition Week 1993; 23 (May 28):3

27. Woodhill JM, Palmer AJ, Leelarthaepin B, McGilchrist C, Blacket R . Low Fat, Low Cholesterol Diet in Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease. Adv Exptl Med Biol 1977; 109:317- 330.

28. Leonard RE. Icons of American Diet Crash Into New Reality. Nutrition Week October 9,1992; 4- 5.

29. Pownall HJ, Shepherd J, Mantulin WW, Sklar LA, Gotto AM, Tauton OD. Effect of saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets on the composition and structure of human low density lipoproteins. Atherosclerosis 1980; 36:299- 314.

30. Hodgson J, Wahlqvist M, Boxall J, Balazs N. Can linoleic acid Contribute to Coronary Heart Disease? Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 1993; 58:228- 34.

31. Kuller LH; Trans Fatty Acids and Dieting. Lancet 1993; 341:1093- 4.

32. Siguel EN, Lerman RH. Trans Fatty Acid Patterns in Patients with Angiographically Documented Coronary Heart Disease. Amer. J. Cardiology 1993; 71:916- 20.

All rights, including electronic and print media, to these articles are copyrighted to © Richard A. Passwater, Ph.D. and Whole Foods magazine (WFC Inc.).

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 About The Author
Richard A. Passwater, Ph.D. has been a research biochemist since 1959. His first areas of research was in the development of pharmaceuticals and analytical chemistry. His laboratory research led to his discovery of......moreRichard Passwater PhD
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