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 The Effect of Intestinal Microbes on Systemic Immunity  
 
The following is one in an ongoing series of columns entitled Dr. Galland's Integrated Medicine by . View all columns in series

Israel, Y., Hurwitz, E., Niemela, O. and Amon, R. (1986) Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against acetaldehyde-containing epitopes in acetaldehyde-protein adducts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 83, 7923-7927.

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Iwata, K. (1977b) Fungal toxins and their role in the etiopathology of fungal infections. In S. Takima (ed.) Recent Advances in Medical and Veterinary Mycology, pp. 1534. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.

Iwata, K., Uchida, K. and Endo, H. (1966) 'Canditoxin' a new toxic substance isolated from a strain of Candida albicans. Medicine and Biology, 74, 345-355.

James, J. and Warin, R. P. (1971) An assessment of the role of Candida albicans and food yeast in chronic urticaria. British Journal of Dermatology, 84, 227-237.

Juhlin, L. and Michaelsson, G. (1984) Fibrin microclot in patignts with acne. Acta Dermatologia et Venereologia, 63, 538-540.

Kabe, J., Aoiki, Y., Ishizaki, T., Miyamoto, T., Nakazawe, H. and Tomaru, M. (1971) Relationship of dermal and pulmonary sensitivity to extracts of Candida albicans. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 104, 348-357.

Kamath, K. R. and Murugasu, R. (1974) A comparative study of four methods for detecting Giardia lamblia in children with diarrheal disease and malabsorption. Gastroenterology, 66, 16-21.

Kanwar, S. S., Walia, B. N. S., Ganguly, N. K. and Mahajan, R. C. (1987) The macrophage as an effector cell in Giardia lamblia infections. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 176, 83-88.

Kasliwal, R. M. (1970) Correlation between amoebic colitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 18, 739-743.

Keefer, C. S. (1951) Alterations in normal bacterial flora of man and secondary infections during antibiotic therapy. American Journal of Medicine, 11, 665-666.

Kennou, M. F. (1980) Skin manifestation of giardiasis. Some clinical cases. Archives de Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 51, 257-260.

Kinsella, T. D. (1988) Ankylosing spondylitis and infectious agents. In L. Espinoza, D. Goldenburg, F. Arnett and G. Alarcon (eds) Infections in the Rheumatic Disease, pp. 353-360. Grune and Stratton, Orlando.

Kirkpatrick, C. H. (1984) Host factors in defense against fungal infections. American Journal of Medicine, 77 (413), 1-12.

Korman, S. H., Le Blancq, S. M., Spira, D. T., El On, J., Reifen, R. M. and Deckelbaum, R. J. (1986) Giardia lamblia: Identification of different strains for man. Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde, 72, 173-180.

Kretschmer, R. R. (1886) Immune consequences of amebiasis. Pediatric Infectious Disease, 5, 5109-5116.

Krogstad, D. J. (1986) Isoenzyme patterns and pathogenicity in amebic infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 315, 390-391.

Kroker, G. (1987) Chronic candidiasis and allergy. In J. Brostoff and S. J. Challacombe (eds) Food Allergy and Intolerance, pp. 850-872. Balliere-Tindall, London.

Kurimoto, Y. (1975) Relationship among skin tests, bronchial challenge and serology in house dust and Candida albicans allergic asthma. Annals of Allergy, 35, 131-141.

Kuvaeva, B., Orlova, N. G., Veselova, O. L. Kuznezova, G. G. and Borovick, T. E. (1984) Microecology of the gastrointestinal tract and the immunological status under food allergy. Die Nahrung, 28 (6/7), 689-693.

Lee, W. M., Holley, H. P., Stewart, J. and Galbraith, G. M. P. (1986) Case report: Refractory esophageal candidiasis associated with a low molecular weight plasma inhibitor of T-lymphocyte function. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 292, 4749.

Lever, A. M. L., Lew-is, D. M., Bannister, B. A., Fry, M. and Berry, N. (1988) Interferon production in postviral fatigue syndrome. Lancet, 2, 101.

Liebeskind, A. (1%2) Candida albicans as an allergenic factor. Annals of Allergy, 20, 394-396.

Lindenbaum, J., Rund, D. G. and Butler, V. P. Jr (1981) Inactivation of digoxin by gut flora: reversal by antibiotic therapy. New England Journal of Medicine, 305, 789-794.

Lombardi, G., Vismara, D., Piccolella, E., Colizzi, V. and Asherson, G. L. (1985) A non-specific inhibitor produced by Candida albicans activated T cells impairs cell proliferation by inhibiting Interleukin-1 production. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 60, 303-310.

Lopez-Brea, M., Sain, Z. T., Camarero, C. and Baquero, M. (1979) Giardia lamblia associated with bronchial asthma and serum antibodies, and chronic diarrhoea in a child with giardiasis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 73, 600.

Lyon, B. B. V. and Swalm, W. A. (1952) Giardiasis: its frequency, recognition, treatment and certain clinical factors. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 170, 348-364.

Mabray, C. R. (1988) Chronic candidiasis and polysysten-dc disorders: Study explores common features. The Female Patient, 13, 34-62.

Mackowiak, P. A. (1982) The normal microbial flora. New England Journal of Medicine, 307, 83-93.

Mahmoud, A. A. F. and Warren, K. S. (1975) Algorithms in the diagnosis and management of exotic diseases. II. Giardiasis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 131, 621-624.

Marconi, P., Scaring, L., Tissi, L., Boccaniera, M., Bistoni, F., Bonmassat, E. and Cassone, A. (1985) Induction of natural killer cell activity by inactivated Candida albicans in mice. Infections and Immunity, 50, 297-303.

Mathur, S., Goust, J. M., Horger, E. O. and Fudenberg, H. H. 0 977) Immunoglobulin E anti-Candida antibodies and candidiasis. Infection and Immunity, 18, 257-259.

Mathur, S., Melchers, J. T., Ades, E. W., Williamson, H. 0. and Fundenberg, H. (1980) Anti-ovarian and anti-lymphocyte antibodies in patients with chronic vaginal candidiasis. Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 2, 247-262.

Mayrhofer, G. (1984) Physiology of the intestinal immune system. In T. J. Newby and V, C. R. Stokes (eds) Local Immune Responses of the Gut, pp. 1-96. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

McGuignan, L. E., Prendergast, J. K., Geczy, A. F., Edmonds, J. P. and Bashi, H. V. (1986) Significance of non-pathogenic cross reactive bowel flora in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 45, 566-571.

McNeil, N. I. (1984) The contribution of the large intestine to energy supplies in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 39, 338-342.

Mirelman, D. (1987) Effect of culture condition and bacterial associates on the zymodemes of Entamoeba histolytica. Parasitology Today, 3, 37-40.

Mirelman, D., Bracha, R., Chayen, A., Anst-Kettis, A. and Diamond, L. S. (1986) Entamoeba histolytica: effect of growth conditions and bacterial associates on isoenzyme patterns and virulence. Experimental Parasitology, 62, 142-148.

Mogyoros, M., Calef, E. and Gitler, C. (1986) Virulence of Entamoeba histolytica correlates with the capacity to develop complement resistance. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, 22, 915-917.

Morrison, D. C. and Ryan, J. L. (1979) Bacterial endotoxins; and host immune responses. Advances in Immunology, 28, 293-299.

Myer, E. A. and Jarroll, E. L. (1980) Giardiasis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 111, 1-12.

Naik, S. R., Rau, N. R., Vinajak, V. K., Narayanna, V. A., Zunzurwade, S., Sehgal, S. C. and Talwar, P. (1978) Presence of Candida albicans in normal and in Giardia lamblia infected human jejunum. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 72, 493-494.

Nash, T. E., Herrington, D. A., Losonsky, G. A. and Levine, M. M. (1987) Experimental human infections with Giardia lamblia. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 156, 974-984.

Nelson, R. D., Herron, M. J., McCormack, R. T. and Gehrz, R. C. (1984) Two mechanisms of inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation by soluble yeast marman polysaccharide. Infection and Immunity, 43, 1041-1046.

Nosal, R., Novotny, J. and Sikl, D. (1973) The effect of glycoprotein from Candida albicans on isolated rat mast cells. Toxicon, 12, 103-108.

Odds, F. C. (1988) Candida and Candidosis, a Review and Bibliography. Balliere-Tindall, London.

Olhagen, B. and Mannson, I. (1968) Intestinal Clostridium perfringens in rheumatoid arthritis and other collagen diseases. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 184, 395-402.

Olson, G. B., Kanaan, M. N., Gersuk, G. M., Kelley, L. M. and Jones, J. F. (1986) Correlation between allergy and persistent Epstein-Barr virus infections in chronic-active Epstein-Barr virus-infected patients. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 78, 308-314.

Palacios, H. J. (1976) Hypersensitivity as a cause of dermatologic and vaginal moniliasis resistant to topical therapy. Annals of Allergy, 37, 110-113.

Paterson, P. Y., Semo, R., Blumenschein, G. and Swelstad, J. (1971) Mucocutaneous candidiasis, anergy and a plasma inhibitor of cellular immunity: reversal after amphotericin B therapy. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 9, 595-602.

Pearce, R. B. (1983) Intestinal protozoal infection and AIDS. Lancet, 2, 51.

Pearce, R. B. and Abrams, D. 1. (1984) AIDS and parasitism. Lancet, 1, 1411.

Pearce, R. B. and Abrams, D. (1987) Entamoeba histolytica in homosexual men. New England Journal of Medicine, 316, 690-691.

Pepys, J., Faux, J. A., Longbottom, J. F., McCarthy, D. S. and Hargreave, F. E. (1968) Candida albicans precipitins in respiratory disease in man. Journal of Allergy, 41, 306318.

Petri, W. A. and Ravdin, J. I. (1986) Treatment of homosexual men infected with Entamoeba histolytica. New England Journal of Medicine, 315, 393.

Planes, M., Brunet, D., Dalayerm, H., Paupe, G., Charlas, J., Raupe, J. and ViaIette, J. (1972) Allergie e Candida albicans chez Fenfant. Revue Francaise d'Allergologie, 12, 115-123.

Rappaport, E. M., Rossieu, A. X. and Rosenblum, L. A. (1951) Arthritis due to intestinal amebiasis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 34, 1224-1231.

Ray, T. L. and Wuepper, K. D. (1976) Activation of the alternative (properdin) pathway of complement by Candida albicans and related species. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 67, 700-703.

Reed, S. L. Curd, J. G., Gigh, I., Gillin, F. D. and Braude, A. 1. (1986) Activation of complement by pathogenic and nonpathogenic Entamoeba histolytica. Journal of Immunology, 136, 2265-2270.

Rentdorff, R. C. (1954) The experimental transmission of human intestinal protozoan parasites. 11. Giardia lamblia cysts given in capsules. American Journal of Hygiene, 59, 209-220.

Rentclorff, R. C. and Holt, C. J. (1954) The experimental transmission of human intestinal protozoal parasites IV. Attempts to transmit Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia cysts by water. American Journal of Hygiene, 60, 327-338.

Reynolds, J. A., Kastello, M. D., Harrington, D. H., Crobbs, C. L., Peters, C. J., Jeniski, J. V., Scott, G. H. and Diluzio, N. R. (1980) Glucan-induced enhancement of host resistance to selected infectious diseases. Infection and Immunity, 30, 51-57.

Ridley, M. J. and Ridley, D. S. (1976) Serum antibodies and jejunal histology in , giardiasis associated with malabsorption. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 29, 30-34.

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 About The Author
Leo Galland, M.D. has received international recognition as a leader in the field of Nutritional Medicine for the past 20 years. A board-certified internist, Dr. Galland is a Fellow of the......moreLeo Galland MD, FACN
 
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