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 The Effect of Intestinal Microbes on Systemic Immunity  
 
The following is one in an ongoing series of columns entitled Dr. Galland's Integrated Medicine by . View all columns in series

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American Academy of Allergy and Immunology (1986) Candidiasis hypersensitivity syndrome. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 78, 271-272.

American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs (1987) In vivo diagnostic testing and immunotherapy for allergy. Report I, part 11, of the allergy panel. Journal of the American Medical Association, 258, 1505-1508.

Archer, D. L. and Glinsman, W. H. (1985) Enteric infections and other co-factors in AIDS. Immunology Today, 6, 292-294.

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Belosevic, M., Faubert, G. M. and MacLean, J. D. (1985b) Giardia muris-induced depression of the primary immune response in spleen and mesenteric lymph node cell cultures to sheep red blood cells. Parasite Immunology, 7, 467-478.

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Burkitt, D. P. (1983) The discovery of Burkitt's lymphoma. Cancer, 51, 1777-1786.

Burnstein, S. L. and Liakos, S. (1983) Parasitic rheumatism presenting as rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Rheumatology, 10, 514-515.

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Carrow, E. W. and Domer, J. E. (1985) Immunoregulation in experimental murine candidiasis: Specific suppression induced by Candida albican5 cell wall glycoprotein. Infection and Immunity, 49,172-181.

Chadee, K., Meerovitch, E. and Moreau, F. (1985) In vitro and in vivo interaction between trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica and gerbil lymphoid cells. Infection and Immunity, 49, 828-832.

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Chen, Z. C., Herrmann, F., Koleski, F. and Diamantstein, T. (1985) Mitogenic factor for T inducer/ helper cells in Entamoeba histolytica extracts. Acta Academiae Medicina Wuhan, 5 (4), 213-216.

Cheney, P. R., Dorman, S. E. and Bell, D. S. (1989) Interleukin-2 and the chronic fatigue syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine, 110, 321.

Chester, C. A., Macmurray, F. G., Restifo, M. D. and Mann, 0. (1985) Giardiasis as a chronic disease. Digestive Disease and Sciences, 30, 215-218.

Claus, R., Nausch, M., Ringel, B., Zingler, C., Schulze, H. A. and Kaben, V. (1988) Myloses. Effects of ketaconazole on the immune system N. In vitro effects on monocyte functions. 31, 303-312.

Cowan, A. E. and Campbell, C. B. (1973) Giardiasis-a cause of vitamin B12 malabsorption. American Journal of Digestive Disease, 18, 384-386.

Crook, W. G. (1984) Depression associated with Candida albicans in human illness. Journal of the American Medical Association, 251, 2928-2929.

Crook, W. G. (1986) The Yeast Connection. Vintage Books, New York.

Croxson, S., Mildran, D., Mathews, H. and Poiez, B. J. (1988) Entamoeba histolytica antigen-specific induction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus replication. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 26, 292-294.

Crutcher, N., Rosenberg, E. W., Belew, P. W., Skinner, R. B., Eaglestein, N. F. and Baker, S. M. (1984) Oral nystatin in the treatment of psoriasis. Archives of Dermatology, 120, 435.

Cuff, C. F., Robers, C. M., Lamb, B. J. and Rogers, T. J. (1986) Induction of suppressor cells in vitro by Candida albicans. Cellular Immunology, 100, 47-56.

Dellamonica, P., Le Fichoux, X., Monnier, B. and Duplay, H. (1976) Syndrome dysenterigue et urticaire, au cours d'une giardiase. Nouvelle Presse Medicale, 5, 1913.

denHollander, N., Riley, D. and Befus, D. (1988) Immunology of Giardia. Parasitology Today, 4, 124-133.

Dismukes, W. E., Wade, J. S., Lee, J. Y., Dockery, B. K. and Hain, J. D. (1990) A randomized, double-blind trial of nystatin therapy for candidiasis hypersensitivity syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 323, 1717-1723.

Dwyer, W. (1984) Anergy, the mysterious loss of immunological energy. Progress in Allergy, 35, 15-92.

EI-Hefny, A. M. (1968a) Candida albicans as an important respiratory allergen in the United Arabic Republic. Acta Allergelogica, 23, 297-302.

EI-Hefny, A. M. (1968b) The Arthus reaction to Candida albicans in asthma patients. Acta Allergologica, 23, 303-311.

Farthing, M. J. G., Chong, S. K. F. and Walker-Smith, J. A. (1983) Acute allergic phenomena in giardiasis. Lancet, 2, 1428.

Felman, J. M. and Nikitas, J. A. (1985) Giardiasis. Cutis, 305-306.

Fischer, A., Ballet, J. J. and Griscelli, C. L. (1978) Specific inhibition of in vitro Candida induced lymphocyte proliferation by polysaccharide antigens present in the serum of patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 62, 1005-1013.

Fischer, A., Pichat, L., Audinot, H. and Griscelli, C. (1982) Defective handling of marman by monocytes in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis resulting in a specific cellular unresponsiveness. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 47, 653-660.

Fossati, C. (1971) Manifestazioni broncopulmonari in corso di infestazione da Giardia lamblia. Revista Iberica de Parisitologia, 31, 283-298.

Galland, L. (1986) Increased requirements for essential fatty acids in atopic individuals. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 5, 213-228.

Galland, L. (1989) Intestinal protozoan infection is a common unsuspected cause of chronic illness. Journal of Advancement in Medicine, 2, 529-552.

Galland, L. and Bueno, H. (1989) Advances in laboratory diagnosis of intestinal parasites. American Clinical Laboratory, 18-19.

Galland, L., Lee, M., Bueno, H. and Heirnowitz, C. (1990) Giardia lamblia infection as a cause of chronic fatigue. Journal of Nutritional Medicine, 2, 27-32.

Ganguly, N. K., Mahajan, R. C., Radhakrishna, V., Ghosh, S. S., Kanwar, S. S. and

Garg, S. K. (1984a) Effect of Giardia lamblia infection on the intestinal cyclic AMP level in mice. Journal of Diarrhoeal Disease Research, 2, 69-72.

Ganguly, N. K., Garg, S. K., Vasudev, V., Radhakrishna, V., Anand, B. S. and Mahajan, R. C. (1984b) Prostaglandins E & F levels in mice infected with Giardia lamblia. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 79, 755-759.

Gibb, A. P. (1989) Identification of unsuspected cases of giardiasis by wet-film microscopy. Lancet, 2, 216-217.

Gillon, J. (1984) Giardiasis: Review of epidemiology, pathogenetic mechanisms and host responses. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 53, 29-39.

Gillon, J., Althamery, D. and Ferguson, A. (1982) Features of small intestinal pathology (epithelial cell kinetics, intraepithelial lymphocytes, disaccharidases) in a primary Giardia muris infection. Gut, 23, 498-506.

Gitler, C. and Mirelman, D. (1986) Factors contributing to the pathogenic behavior of Entamoeba histolytica. Annual Reviews of Microbiology, 40, 237-261.

Goldin, B. R. and Gorbach, S. L. (1984) Alterations of the intestinal microflora by diet, oral antibiotics, and lactobacillus: Decreased production of free amines from aromatic nitro compounds, azo dyes, and glucuronides. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 73, 689-695.

Goobar, J. P. (1977) Joint symptoms in giardiasis. Lancet, 1, 1010-1011.

Gorbach, S. (1982) The role of intestinal flora in the metabolism of drugs, hormones and carcinogens. Infectious Diseases, 12, 4-30.

Gordon, E. H. and Klaustermeyer, W. B. (1986) Hypersensitivity to Candida albicans. Immunology and Allergy Practice, 8, 29-34.

Guerrant, R. L. (1986) The global problem of amebiasis: current status, research needs, and opportunities for progress. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 8, 218-227.

Guerrant, R. L., Brush, J., Ravdin, J. I., Sullivan, J. A. and Mandell, G. L. (1981) Interaction between Entamoeba histolytica and human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Journal of Infectology, 143, 83-93.

Gumowski, P., Lech, B. and Chaves, 1. (1987) Chronic asthma and rhinitis due to Candida albicans, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton. Annals of Allergy, 59, 48-51.

Hageage, G. J. and Harrington, B. J. (1984) Use of calcoflour white in clinical mycology. Laboratory Medicine, 15, 109-112.

Harris, R. H. and Mitchell, J. H. (1949) Chronic urticaria due to Giardia lamblia. Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology, 59, 587-589.

Heyworth, M. F., Kung, J. E. and Eriksson, E. C. (1986) Clearance of Giardia muris infection in mice deficient in natural killer cells. Infection and Immunity, 54, 903-904.

Heyworth, M. F., Carlson, J. R. and Emark, T. H. (1987) Clearance of Giardia muris infection requires helper/inducer T-lymphocytes. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 12 (165),1743-1748.

Hill, D. R. and Pearson, R. D. (1987) Ingestion of Giardia lamblia trophozoites, by human mononuclear phagocytes. Infection and Immunity, 55, 3155-3161.

Holti, G. (1966) Candida allergy. In H. 1. Winner and R. Hurley (eds) Symposium on Candida Infections, pp. 73-81. E. & S. Livingstone Ltd, London.

Inman, R. D. (1988) Reactive arthritis, Reiter's Syndrome, and enteric pathogens. In L. Espinoza, D. Goldenburg, F. Arnett and G. Alarcon (eds) Infections in the Rheumatic Diseases, pp. 273-279. Grune and Stratton, Orlando.

lonescu, G., Radovicic, D., Schuler, R., Hilpert, R., Negoescu, A., Preda, I., Jurthi, E., Itze, W. and Itze, L. (1986) Changes in fecal microflora and malabsorption phenomena suggesting a contaminated small bowel syndrome in atopic eczema patients. Microecology and Therapy, 16, 273.

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 About The Author
Leo Galland, M.D. has received international recognition as a leader in the field of Nutritional Medicine for the past 20 years. A board-certified internist, Dr. Galland is a Fellow of the......moreLeo Galland MD, FACN
 
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