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utritional Medicine
The Discovery of Kryptopyrrole and its Importance in Diagnosis of Biochemical Imbalances in Schizophrenia and in Criminal Behavior

© Abram Hoffer MD, PhD
 (Excerpted from Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine)


  1. See References in Dr. Kraus paper.
  2. Hoffer A: The Presence of Malvaria in Some Mentally Retarded Children. Amer J Ment Def 67:730-732, 1963. Hoffer A: Malvaria and the Law. Psychoso-matics, 7:303-310, 1966.
    Hoffer A: A Program for the Treatment of Alcoholism: LSD, Malvaria and Nicotinic Acid. In, The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism. Ed. HA Abramson.Bobbs-Merril, New York, 343-402, 1967.
    Hoffer A & Mahon M: The Presence of Unidentified Substances in the Urine of Psychiatric Patients 2:331-362, 1961
    Hoffer A & Osmond H: The Relationship Between an Unknown Factor (US) in the Urine of Subjects and HOD Test Results. J Neuropsychiatry 2:363-368, 1961.
    Hoffer A & Osmond H: Malvaria: A New Psychiatric Disease. Acta Psychiat Scand 39:335-366, 1963.
  3. Hoffer A: The Psychophysiology of Cancer. J Asthma Research 8:61-76, 1970.
  4. Hoffer A & Osmond H: A Card Sorting Test Helpful in Making Psychiatric Diagnosis. J Neuropsychiatry 2:306-330, 1961.
    Hoffer A & Osmond H: A Card Sorting Test Helpful in Establishing Prognosis. Am J Psychiatry 118:840-841, 1962.
    Hoffer A & Osmond H: The Relationship Between an Unknown Factor (US) in the Urine of Subjects and HOD Test Results. J Neuropsychiatry 2:363-368, 1961.
    Hoffer A & Osmond H: The Association Between Schizophrenia and Two Objective Tests. Can Med Ass J 87:641-646, 1962.
    Hoffer A, Kelm H & Osmond H: The Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic Test. RE Krieger Pub Co. Huntington, New York, 1975.
  5. Hoffer A, Osmond H, Callbeck MJ & Kahan I: Treatment of Schizophrenia with Nicotinic Acid and Nicotinamide. J Clin Exper Psychopathol 18:131-158, 1957.
    Hoffer A: Niacin Therapy in Psychiatry. C.C.Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1962.
    Hoffer A & Osmond H: Treatment of Schizophrenia with Nicotinic Acid - A Ten Year Follow-Up. Acta Psychiat Scand 40:171-189, 1964.
    Hoffer A: Treatment of Schizophrenia with a Therapeutic Program Based Upon Nicotinic Acid as the Main Variable. Molecular Basis of Some Aspects of Mental Activity, Vol II. Ed. O Walaas, Academic Press, New York, 1967.
    Hoffer A: Megavitamin B-3 Therapy for Schizophrenia. Can Psychiatric Ass J 16:499-504, 1971.
    Hoffer A: Treatment of Hyperkinetic Children with Nicotinamide and Pyridoxine. Can Med Ass J 107:111-112, 1972.
    Hoffer A: Natural History and Treatment of Thirteen Pairs of Identical Twins, Schizo-phrenic and Schizophrenic-Spectrum Condi-tions. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:101-122, 1976.
    Hoffer A: Orthomolecular Medicine for Physicians. Keats Pub, New Canaan, CT, 1989.
    Hoffer A: Orthomolecular Medicine. In, Molecules In Natural Science and Medicine, An Encomium for Linus Pauling. Ed Z.B. Maksic & M. Eckert-Maksic, Ellis Horwood Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, England, 1991.
    Hoffer A: Vitamin B3 and Schizophrenia: Discovery, Recovery, Controversy. Quarry Press, Kingston, Ontario, 1994.
  6. Hoffer A: Chronic Schizophrenic Patients Treated Ten Years Or More. J. Orthomolecular Medicine, 9:7-37, 1994.
  7. Hoffer A & Osmond H: How To Live With Schizophrenia. University Books, New York, NY, 1966. Also published by Johnson, London, 1966. New and Revised Ed. Citadel Press, New York, N.Y. 1992
    Hoffer A & Osmond H: The Hallucinogens. Academic Press, New York, 1967.
    Orthomolecular Psychiatry, Eds. D. Hawkins and Linus Pauling. W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1973.
A. Hoffer, M.D., Ph.D.
#3A - 2727 Quadra Street
Victoria, B.C. V8T 4E5
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About The Author
In pursuing this research we were the first physicians in America to conduct double blind controlled tests, and we were later the first to recognize and to publish its many defects and flaws. By 1967 we had established some of the roots of orthomolecular medicine. The word itself was coined in 1968 by Linus Pauling. His remarkable influence played a major role.Our discovery that......more
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