As for the other common use for steroidal estrogens, the
report says the evidence suggests estrogen-containing oral
contraceptives may be associated with an increased risk of
breast cancer but may protect against ovarian and
BROAD SPECTRUM ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR). UVR is
produced by the sun as part of solar radiation and by
artificial sources such as sun lamps and tanning beds, in
medical diagnosis and treatment procedures, and in industry
for promoting polymerization reactions. The report cites
data indicating a cause-and-effect relationship between
this radiation and skin cancer, cancer of the lip and
melanoma of the eye. The report goes on to say that skin
cancers are observed with increasing duration of exposure
and for those who experience sunburn. The individual
components of UVR, which includes ultraviolet A,
ultraviolet B and ultraviolet C radiation, are listed in
the report, not as "known", but as "reasonably anticipated"
human carcinogens -- See below.
WOOD DUST. Listed as a "known human carcinogen" in this
report, wood dust is created when machines and tools cut,
shape and finish wood. Wood dust is particularly prevalent
in sawmills, furniture manufacture and cabinet making.
According to the report, unprotected workers have a higher
risk of cancers of the nasal cavities and sinuses.
NICKEL COMPOUNDS. Used in many industrial applications as
catalysts and in batteries, pigments and ceramics, the
report newly lists nickel compounds as "known" human
carcinogens based on studies of workers showing excess
deaths from lung and nasal cancers and on their mechanisms
One group of substances was upgraded from "reasonably
anticipated" to "known" human carcinogen:
BERYLLIUM AND BERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS. About 800,000 workers
are exposed via inhalation of beryllium dust or dermal
contact with products containing beryllium. Workers with
the highest potential for exposure include beryllium
miners, beryllium alloy makers and fabricators, ceramics
workers, missile technicians, nuclear reactor workers,
electric and electronic equipment workers, and jewelers.
According to data cited in the report, they have higher
risks for lung cancer which increase with their exposures
and which cannot be explained by tobacco smoking or other
TWELVE SUBSTANCES OR GROUPS OF SUBSTANCES ARE NEWLY LISTED
AS "REASONABLY ANTICIPATED TO BE HUMAN CARCINOGENS":
IQ, or 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, which is
formed during direct cooking with high heat of foods such
as meats and eggs and also found in cigarette smoke, is
listed as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen"
based on long-term animal studies. The report also states
there are several published human studies that suggest
there is an increased risk for breast and colorectal
cancers related to consumption of broiled or fried foods
that may contain IQ and/or other similar compounds formed
during cooking at high temperatures.
2,2-Bis-(BROMOMETHYL)-1,3-PROPANEDIOL (TECHNICAL GRADE), a
flame retardant chemical used to make some polyester resins
and rigid polyurethane foam is listed as "reasonably
anticipated" based on long-term animal feeding studies.
ULTRAVIOLET A, ULTRAVIOLET B AND ULTRAVIOLET C RADIATION,
are listed as "reasonably anticipated to be human
carcinogens" because, according to the report, animal
studies show a cause-and-effect relationship between
exposure to each of these wavelength groups of broad
spectrum ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and skin cancer. The
report points out that the data on skin cancer in humans
for these different wavelengths of UVR are limited, because
it has been impossible to determine if the people in these
studies were exposed to "pure" individual components of UVR
or, as is more likely the case, to "mixtures" of the
different components thus making it impossible to say that
the observed skin cancers were due only to one of the
"pure" individual components.