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 Interviews with Nutritional Experts: N-Acetylcysteine (NAC): An Old Nutrient Attracts New Research 

1. Slowing AIDS: The roles of NAC and vitamin C.Passwater, Richard A.Whole Foods (Jan. 1992)

2. Human Aging Research: Part TwoPasswater, Richard A. and Welker, Paul A.Amer. Lab. 3(5):21-6 (May 1971)

3. Enhancement of ischaemic rabbit skin flap survival with theantioxidant and free-radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine.Knight, K., et al,Clin. Sci. 81:31-6 (1991)

4. Antioxidant activity and other mechanisms of thiols involvedin chemoprevention of mutation and cancer.De Flora, Silvio, et al,Amer. J. Med. 91(Suppl 3C):122S-130S (Sep. 30, 1991)

5. Bioavailability of dietary glutathione: Effect on plasmaconcentration.Hagen, Torie M., et al,Amer. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 259(4):22-4(1990) and Amer. J. Physiol. 259:G524-G529 (1990)

6. Glutathione-mediated transport across intestinal brush-bordermembranes.Vincenzini, M. T., Favilli, F. and Iantomasi, T.Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Ser. Biomembr. 942(1):107-14 (1988)

7. Glutathione and Aflatoxin B-1 induced liver tumors: Evidencethat the intact glutathione molecule is required by theneoplastic tissue to undergo regression of malignancy.Novi, A. M., Florke, R. and Stukenkemper, M.Science 212:541-2 (1981)

8. Exogenous glutathione protects intestinal epithelial cellsfrom oxidative injury.Lash, Lawrence H., et al,Proceed. Natl. Acad. Sci. 83:4641-5 (1986)

9. AcetylcysteineEditorialThe Lancet 337(8749):1069-70 (May 4, 1991)

10. Systemic glutathione deficiency in symptom-free HIV-seropositive individuals. Buhl, Roland, et al.,The Lancet 2(8675):1294-8 (Dec. 2, 1989)

11. Glutathione concentrations in plasma and blood are markedlydecreased in HIV-infected children.Smith, C. V., et al.,Int. Conf. AIDS 6(2):368 (abst. # 2058) (June 20-3, 1990)

12. Metabolic disorder as early consequence of SimianImmunodeficiency Virus infection in Rhesus macaques.Eck, Hans-Peter, et al,Lancet 338:346-7 (Aug. 10, 1991)

13. Blood antioxidant status and erythrocyte lipid peroxidationfollowing distance running.Duthie, G., et al.Arch. Bioch. 282:78-83 (1990)

14. Protective Effect of Vitamin E On Exercise-induced OxidativeDamage in Young and ELderly Subjects.Meydani, M., et al.International Society for Free Radical Research, 5th BiennialMtg. Pasadena, CA (Nov. 14-20, 1990)

15. Spintrappers and Vitamin E prolong endurance to musclefatigue in mice.Novelli, G., et al.Free Rad. Bio. Med. 8:9-13 (1990)

16. Lp(a) lipoprotein as a risk factor for myocardialinfarction.Rhoads, G. G., et al,JAMA 256:2540-4 (1986)

17. Apolipoprotein(a), A1 and B and parental history in men withearly onset ischaemic heart disease.Durrington, P. N., et al,Lancet I 1070-3 (1988)

18. Lipoprotein(a) modulation of endothelial cell surfacefibrinolysis and its potential role in atherosclerosis.Hajjar, K. A., et al,Nature 339:303-5 (1989)

19. Lipoprotein(a)EditorialLancet 337:397-8 (Feb. 16, 1991)20. Lipoprotein(a): A possible link between lipoproteinmetabolism and thrombosis.Rees, AlanBrit, Heart J. 65:2-3 (1991)

21. Inverse correlation between plasma vitamin E and mortalityfrom ischemic heart disease in cross-cultural epidemiology.Gey,, K. Fred, et al,Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 53:326S-34S (1991)

22. Lipoprotein(a) reduction by N-acetylcysteine.Gavish, Dov and Breslow, Jan L.The Lancet 337:203-4 (Jan. 26, 1991)

23. N-acetylcysteine and lipoprotein.Stalenhoef, A. F. H., et al,The Lancet 337:491 (Feb. 23, 1991)

24. N-Acetylcysteine and immunoreactivity of lipoprotein(a).Scanu, Angelo M.The Lancet 337:1159 (May 4, 1991)

25. Thiols and cysteine-containing compounds attenuate theimmunoreactivity of Lp(a).Scanu, Angelo M., et al,Arterioscl. Thromb. 11(5):1481a (Sep./Oct. 1991)

26. The role of glutathione status in the protection againstischaemic and reperfusion damage: Effects ofN-acetylcysteine.Ceconi, C., et al,J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 20:5-13 (1988)

27. Beneficial effects of N-acetylcysteine and cysteine instunned myocardium in perfused rat heart.Tang, L-D., et al,Brit. J. Pharmacol. 102(3):601-6 (1991)

28. Lipoprotein(a) reduction by N-acetylcysteine.Hansen, P. R.Lancet 337:672-3 (1991)

29. Continuous oral N-acetylcysteine treatment and developmentof nitrate tolerance in patients with stable anginapectoris.Boesgaard, Soren, et al,J. Cardiovas. Pharmacol. 17(6):889-93 (1991)

30. Mercaptoethanol and N-acetylcysteine enhance T-cell colonyformation in AIDS and ARC.Wu, J., Levy, E. M. and Black, P. H.Clin. Exp. Immunol. 77:7-10 (1989)

31. Lymphocyte dysfunction after DNA damage by toxic oxygenspecies.Carson, D. A., Seto, S. and Wasson, D. B.J. Exp. Med. 163:746-51 (1986)

32. Immunomodulation by neutrophil myeloperoxidase and hydrogenperoxide: Differential susceptibility of human lymphocytefunctions.El-Hag, A., et al,J. Immunol. 136:3420-6 (1986)

33. Thiol-containing antioxidant drugs and the human immunesystem.Stagnaro, R., et al,Bull. Eur. Physiopathol. Respir. 23:303-7 (1987)

34. Suppression of Cytokine-induced Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) expression by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), glutathione(GSH) and Glutathione monoester (GSE)Kinter, Audrey L., et al,75th Annual Meeting of the Federation of American Societiesfor Experimental Biology, Atlanta, Georgia (April 21-5, 1991)J. FASEB 5(5) A1265 (1991)

35. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus expression inchronically infected monocytic cells by glutathione,glutathione ester, and N-acetylcysteine. Kalebic, Thea, et al,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88(3):986-90 (1991)

36. Thiol-based compounds may limit AIDS progression.CDC AIDS Weekly p3 (Feb. 25, 1991)

37. N-acetylcysteine inhibits latent HIV expression inchronically infected cells.Roederer, M., et al,AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 7(6):563-7 (1991)

38. Cytokine-stimulated human immunodeficiency virus replicationis inhibited by N-acetylcysteine.Roederer, M., et al,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 87:4884-8 (1990)

39. Intercellular thiols regulate activation of nuclear factorkappa B and transcription of HIV.Staal, F. J., Roederer, M. Herzenberg, L. A. andHerzenberg, L. A.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 87(24):9943-7 (Dec. 1990)

40. Reducing agents and AIDS - Why are we waiting?Turner, V. F.Med. J. Aust. 153/8, 502 (1990)

41. Mercaptoethanol and N-acetylcysteine enhance T-cell colonyformation in AIDS and ARC. Wu, J., et al,Clin. Exp. Immunol. 77/1, 7-10 (1989)

42. AIDS - Drug therapy; Acetylcysteine research.Cooper, MikeCDC AIDS Weekly p4 (Oct. 2, 1989)

43. Glutathione deficiency and radiosensitivity in AIDSpatients.Vallis, K. A.The Lancet 337:918-9 (April 13, 1991)

44. Comparative study of the anti-HIV activities of ascorbateand thiol-containing reducing agents in chronicallyHIV-infected cells.Harakeh, Steve and Jariwalla, Raxit J.Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 54:1231S-5S (1991)

45. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication and NF-kappa B activity bycysteine and cysteine derivatives.Mihm, S., et al,AIDS 5(5):497-503 (May 1991)

46. Intracellular glutathione level controls DNA-bindingactivity of NF kappa B-like proteins. Mihm, S. and Droge, W.Int. Conf. AIDS 6(3):159 (abst. # SA311) (June 20-3, 1990)

47. Coenzyme Q10 increases T4/T8 ratios of lymphocytes inordinary subjects and relevance to patients having the AIDSrelated complex. Folkers, Karl, et al,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 176(2):786-91 (April 30, 1991)

48. Clinical application for heavy metal-complexing potential ofN-acetylcysteine.Lorber, A., et al,J. Clin. Pharmacol. 13:332-6 (1973)

49. N-acetylcysteine therapy of acute heavy metal poisoning inmice.Henderson, P., et al,Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 27:522-5 (1985)

50. Treatment of acute methylmercury ingestion byhemodialysis with N-acetylcysteine.Lund, M. E., Clarkson, T. W. and Berlin, M.J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 22:31-49 (1984)

51. Lung and blood superoxide dismutase activity in mercuryvapor exposed rats.Livardjani, F. et al,Toxicol. 66(3):289-95 (1991)

52. Effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in protecting againstmercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity.Girardi, G. and Elias M. M.Toxicol. 67(2):155-64 (1991)

53. Experimental chelation therapy in chromium, lead and boronintoxification with N-acetylcysteine.Tong, T. G.Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 83:142-7 (1986)

54. The role of glutathione in detoxification.Ketterer, B., Coles, B. and Meyer, D. JEnvir. Health Perspec. 49:59-69 (1983)

55. Mechanism of action of N-acetylcysteine in the protectionagainst hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen in rats in vivo.Lauterburg, B. H., Corcoran, G. B. and Mitchell, J. R.J. Clin. Invest. 71:980-991 (1983)

56. Role of glutathione in prevention of acetaminophen-inducedhepatotoxicity by N-acetyl-L-cysteine in vivo.Corcoran, G. B. and Wong, B. K.J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 238:54-61 (1986)

57. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on plasma cysteine andglutathione following paracetamol administration.Burgunder, J. M., Varriale, A. and Lauterberg, B. H.Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 36:127-31 (1989)

58. The disposition and kinetics of intravenousN-acetylcysteine in patients with paracetamol overdosage.Prescott, L. F., et al,Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 37:501-6 (1989)

59. Improvement by acetylcysteine of hemodynamics and oxygentransport in fulminant hepatic failure.Harrison, Phillip M., et al,N. Engl. J. Med. 324(26):1852-7 (June 27, 1991)

60. Identification and characterization of the glutathione andN-acetylcysteine conjugates of E-2, Propyl-2,4-pentadienoicacid (a toxic metabolite of valproic acid in rats andhumans.Kassahun, K. Farrell, K. and Abbott, F.Drug Metab. Dispos. 19(2):525-35 (1991)

61. N-acetylcysteine: Protective agent or promoter of gastricdamage?Lopez, R. A., et al,PSKBM 197:273-8 (1991)

62. N-acetylcysteine improves the survival rate of paraquatpoisoned rats: Elucidation of its mode of action.Hoffer, E., et al,Rev. Respir. Dis. 143(4 part 2) A731 (1991)

63. Allopurinol/N-acetylcysteine for carbon monoxide poisoning.Howard, R. J. M. W., et al,Lancet II 628-9 (1987)

64. Acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning in 19 patients:Implications for diagnosis and treatment.Ruprah, M., Mant, T. G. and Flanagan, R. J.Lancet I 1027-9 (1985)

65. Survival after iassive ingestion of carbon tetrachloridetreated by intravenous infusion of acetylcysteine.Mathieson, P. W., Williams, G. and MacSweeney, J. E.Hum. Toxicol. 4(6):627-31 (1985)

66. Inhibition of urethane-induced lung tumors in mice bydietary N-acetylcysteine.De Flora, Silvio, et al,Cancer Lett. 32(3):235-41 (1986)

67. Identification of N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cysteine:A human metabolite of N,N-dimethylformamide andN-methylformamide.Mraz, J. and Turecek, F.J. Chromatogr. 414(2)399-404 (1987)

68. N-acetylcysteine prevents diaphragmatic contractilealterations induced by Escherichia-coli endotoxemiain rats.Du, Y., Boczkowski, J. and Aubier, M.Rev. Respir. Dis. 143 (4 part 2) A560 (1991)

69. Urinary excretion of thiol conjugates of aflatoxin B1 inrats and hamsters.Raj, H. G. and Lotlikar, P. D.Cancer Lett. 22(2):125-33 (1984)

70. Modifying role of dietary factors on the mutagenicity ofaflatoxin B1: In vitro effect of sulfur-containing aminoacids.Shetty, T. K., Francis, A. R. and Bhattacharya, R. K.Mutat. Res. 222(4):403-7 (1989)

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 About The Author
Richard Passwater PhDRichard A. Passwater, Ph.D. has been a research biochemist since 1959. His first areas of research was in the development of pharmaceuticals and analytical chemistry. His laboratory research led to his discovery of......more
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