Join Now!      Login

Whole Person Wellness Program Wellness Model
Skip Navigation Links
Health Centers
Key Services
Breast Cancer?
More than three-quarters of women who get breast cancer are over whtat age?
over 40 years
over 45 years
over 50 years
over 55 years

 Digestive System: Intestinal Dysbiosis and the Causes of Disease 

The herbal pharmacopeia lists many substances with natural anti- biotic activity and the potential for herbal treatment of gut dysbiosis is virtually unlimited. A tannin-rich mixture of herbal concentrates including extracts of gentiana, sanguinaria and hydrastis has been marketed under various names. In vitro studies at Great Smokies Di- agnostic Laboratory have found this mixture to exert more potent ac- tivity against enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus than any of the common antibiotic drugs tested; its major side effect is nausea pro- duced by the high tannin content.

Summary and Conclusions
Altered microbial ecology in the gut may produce disease and dys- function because of the intense metabolic activity and antigenicity of the bacterial flora. Bacterial enzymes can degrade pancreatic en- zymes, damage the intestinal brush border, deconjugate and reduce bile acids and alter the intestinal milieu in numerous ways, some of which can be easily measured in a properly collected sample of stool. Bacterial antigens may elicit dysfunctional immune responses which contribute to autoimmune diseases of the bowel and of connective tissue. Effective treatment of dysbiosis with diet, antimicrobial sub- stances and biotherapies must distinguish among patterns of dys- biosis. The failure of common approaches utilizing fiber and Lacto- bacilli is a strong indication of small bowel bacterial overgrowth, a challenging disorder which demands a radically different approach.


l. Mentioned in Brown JP. Role of gut bacterial flora in nutrition and health: a review of recent advances in bacteriological techniques, metabolism and factors affecting flora composition. CRC Rev Food Sci Nutr 1977 8:229-336.
2. Haenel H, Bendig J. Intestinal flora in health and disease. Prog Food Nutr Sci 1975, 1:21-64.
3. Berghouse L, Hon S, Hill M, et al. Comparison between the bacterial and oligosaccharide content of ileostomy effluent in subjects taking diets rich in refined or unrefined carbohydrate. Gut 1984; 25:1071-1077.
4. Galland L. Effects of intestinal microbes on systemic immunity. Post Viral Fatigue
Syndrome, Mowbray P, Jenkins R eds. John Wiley & Sons, London, 1991; 405430.
5. Newmark HL, Lupton JR. Determinants and consequences of colonic luminal pH: implications for colon cancer. Nutr and Cancer 1990; 14:161-173. 6. Goldin BR. The metabolism of the intestinal microflora and its relationship to di- etary tat, colon and breast cancer. Dietary Fat and Cancer New York, Alan R. Liss 1986 655-685.
7. Malhotra SL. Fecal urobilinogen levels and pH of stools. J Royal Soc Med 1982; 75:710.
8. Chung K-T, Fulk GE, Slein MW. Tryptophanase of fecal flora as a possible factor in the etiology of colon cancer. J Natl Can Inst 1975, 54:1073-1078.
9. Hill MJ, Melviulle DM, LennardÇJones JE, Neale K, Ritchie JK. Faecal bile acids, dysplasia, and carcinoma in ulcerative colitis. Lancet 1987; 2:185-186.
10. Bennet JD. Ulcerative colitis: the result of an altered bacterial metabolism of bile acids or cholesterol. Med Hypoth 1986, 20:125-132.
11. Effects of short-chain fatty acids on a human colon carcinoma cell line. Nutr Rev (United States) 1988; 46(1):11-12.
12. Breuer Rl. Rectal irrigation with short-chain fatty acids. Dig Dis Sci 1991; 2:185-187.
13. Kistler LA, Gianella RA. Relationship of intestinal bacteria to malabsorption. Pract Gastroenterol 1980; 4:24-44.
14. Lichtman SN, Keku J, Schwab JH, Sartor RB. Hepatic injury associated with small bowel bacterial overgrowth in rats is prevented by metronidazole and tetra- cycline. Gastroenterol 1991; 100:513-519.
15. du Moulin GC, Hedley-White J. The stomach as a bacterial reservoir: clinical significance. IM: Internal Medicine for the Specialist 1982; 3:47-55.
16. Serrander R, Magnusson K-E, Kihlstrom E, Sundqvist T. Acute yersinia infections in man increase intestinal permeability for low-molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEG 400). Scand J Inf Dis 1986, 18:409-412.
17. Bode JC, Rust S, Bode C. The effect of cimetidine treatment on ethanol formation in the human stomach. 9and J Gastroenterol 1984; 19:853-856.
18. Hunnisett A, Howard J, Davies S. Gut fermentation (or the auto-brewery) syn- drome: a new clinical test with initial observations and discussion of clinical and biochemical implications. J Nutr Med 1990; 1:33-38.
19. Sudduth WH. The role of bacteria and enterotoxemia in physical addiction to alcohol. Microecology and Therapy 1989; 18: 77-81.
20. Thurn JR, Pierpont GL, Ludvigsen CW, Eckfeldt JH. D-lactate encephalopathy. Am J Med 1985; 79:717-721.
21. Ionescu G, Kiehl R, Ona L, Schuler R. Abnormal fecal microflora and malabsorption phenomena in atopic eczema patients. J Adv Med 1990; 3:71-89.
22. Ionescu G, Kiehl R, Wichmann-Kunz F, Leimbeck R. Immunobiological significance of fungal and bacterial infections in atopic eczema. J Adv Med 1990; 3:47-58.
23. Ionescu G, Kiehl R, Wichmann-Kunz F, Williams C, et al. Oral citrus seed extract in atopic eezema: In vitro and in vivo studies on intestinaˆ microflora. J Orthomoˆ Med 1990, 5:155-161.
24. Alun Jones V, Shorthouse M, McLaughlin P, et al. Food intolerance: a major factor in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet 1980 2:1115-1117.
25. Bayhss CE, Bradley HK, Alun Jones V, Hunter JO. Some aspects of colonic microblal actlvlty in irritable bowel syndrome associated with food intolerance. Annalidell Istituto Superiore di Sanita 1986, 22:959-964.
26. Hunter JO, Alun Jones V. Studies on the pathogenesis of irritable bowel svndrome produced by food intolerance. Read NW, ed, The Irritable Bowel Syndro;ne, New York, Grune and Stratton, 1985; 185-190.
27. Alun Jones V, Wilson AJ, Hunter JO, Robinson RE. The aetiological role of antibilotgi8c4pr5o/phYlalxli)ssw2ith hysterectomy in irritable bowel syndrome J Ob and Gyn
28. Shorter RG, Huizenga KA, Spencer BJ. A working hypothesis for the etiology and pathogenesis of nonspecific inflammatory bowel disease. Digest Dis 1972;
29. Beeken WL. Remedial defects in Crohn disease. Arch Int Med 1975, 135:686-690.
30. Hollander D, Vadheim C, Brettholz E, et al. Increased intestinal permeabilitv in patients with Crohn's disease and their relatives. Ann Int Med 1986, 105 883-885
31. Giaffer MH, Holsworth CD. Effects of an elemental diet on the the faecal ‡lora of patients with Crohn's disease. 9and J Gastroenterol 1989; 24(suppl): S148.
32. Bennett JD Use of a-tocopherylquinone in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Gut
33. Gottschall E. Food and the Gut Reaction. Kirkton, Ontario, The Kirkton Press 1986.
34. McCann M. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 1993 (In Press).
35. Inman RD. Reactive arthritis, Reiter's syndrome, and enteric pathogens. Infections in The Rheumatic Diseases. In: Espinoza L, Goldenberg D, Arnett F, Alarcon G eds. Orlando, FL Grune & Stratton; 1988: 273-280.
36. Gransfors KF Jalkanen S, von Essen R, et al. Yersinia antigens in synovial-fluid cells from patients with reactive arthritis. N Engl J Med 1989 320:216-221.
37. Gransfors K, Jalkanen S, Lindberg AA, et al. Salmonella iipopolysaccaride in synovlal cells from patients with reactive arthritis. Lancet 1990, 1: 685-688.
38. Fox A. Role of bacterial debris in inflammatory diseases of the joint and eye APMIS 1990; 98:957-968.
39. Phillips PE. How do bacteria cause chronic arthritis? J Rheumatol 1989; 16: 1017-1019.
40. Rooney PJ, Jenkins RT, Buchanan WW. A short review of the relationship be- tween intestinal permeability and inflammatory joint disease. Clin and Exp Rheu- amatol 1990; 8:75-83.
41. Ebringer A, Cox N, Abuljadayel I, et al. Klebsiella antibodies in ankylosing spondylitis and proteus antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Brit J of Rheumatol 1988 27(suppl II): 72-85.
42. McGuignan LE, Prendergast JK, Geczy AF, et al. Significance of nonpathogenic cross reactive bowel flora in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 1986; 45:577-571.
43. Husby G, Tsuchiya N, Schwinmmbeck PL, et al. Cross-reactive epitope with Klebslella pneumoniae nitrogenase in articular tissue of HLA-B27 + patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Arth Rheum 1989, 32:437-445.
44. Malhotra SL. Faecal urobilinogen levels and pH of stools in population groups with different incidence of cancer of the colon, and their possible role in its aetiology. J Royal Soc Med 1982, 75:709-714
45. Walker ARP, Walker BF, Walker AJ. Faecal pH, dietary fiber intake, and proneness to colon cancer in four South Afncan populations. Brit J Canc 1986; 53:489-495.
46. Rowland IR. Factors affecting metabolic activity of the intestinal microflora. Drug Metabol Rev 1988; 19:243-261.
47. Rowland IR, Mallett AK. Dietary fiber and the gut microflora -their effects on toxicity. In: Chambers PL, Gehring P, Sakai F, eds, Amsterdam. New Concepts and Developments in Toxicology, 1986: 125-138.
48. Freudenheim J, Graham S, Horvath P. Risks associated with source of flber and fiber components in cancer of the colon and rectum. Canc Res 1990; 50:3295-3300.
49. DeCosse JJ, Miller HH, Lesser ML. Effect of wheat fiber and vltamins C and E on rectal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyps. J Natl Canc Inst 1989; 81:1290-1297.
50. Alberts D, Einspahr J, Rees-McGee S. Effects of dietary wheat bran fiber on rectal epithelial cell proliferation in patients with resection for colorectal cancers. J Natl Canc Inst 1990; 82:1280-1285.
51. Heitman DW, Cameron IL. Reduction of colon cancer risk by dietary cellulose supplementation. J Natl Canc Inst 1990; 82:1154-1155.
52. Mitsuoka T, Hidaka H, Eida T. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal microflora. Die Nahrung 1987; 31:427436.
53. Guggenbichler JP, Allerberger F, Hofstotter H, Dierich MP. Oral therapy for acute diarrhea. N Eng J Med 1991; 324:1672-1673.
54. Tvede M, Rask-Madsen J. Bacteriotherapy for chronic relapsing Clostridium difficile diarrhea in six patients. Lancet 1989; 1:1156-1160. 55. Ayebo AD, Angelo IA and Shahani KM. Effect of ingesting acidophilus milk upon fecal flora and enzyme activity in humans. Milchwissenschaft 1980; 35:730-733. 56. Gorbach SL. Lactic acid bacteria and human health. Ann Med 1990; 22:37-41.
57. Siitonen S, Vapaatalo H, Salminen S, et al. Effect of Lactobaclllus GG yogurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. Ann Med 1990; 22:57-59.
58. Oksanen PJ, Salminen S, Saxelin M, et al. Prevention of travelers' diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG. Ann Med 1990; 22:53-56.
59. Mitsuoka T. Bifidobacteria and their role in human health. J Ind Microbiol 1990; 6:263-268.
60. Yabbara KF, Juffali F, Matossian RM. Bacillus laterosporus endopthalmitis. Arch Ophthalmol 1977; 95:2187-2189.
61. Okube M, Inoue K, Umetani N, et al. Lupus nephropathy in New Zealand Fl hybrid mice treated by ( - )15-deoxyspergualin. Kidney Intl 1988; 34:467-473.
62. Umezawa K, Takeuchi T. Spergualin: a new antitumor antibiotic. Biomed Pharmacotherapy 1987; 41:227-232.
63. Shoji J, Sakazaki R, Wakisaka Y, et al. Isolation of a new antibiotic, lat- erosporamine. Studies on antibiotics from the genus Bacillus Xlll. J Antiblotlcs (Tokyo) 1976; 29:390-393.
64. Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: a prospectlve study. Gastroenterol 1989; 96:981-988.
65. Castex F, Corthier G, Jouvert S, et al. Prevention of Clostridium difflcile-induced experimental pseudomembranous colitis by Saccharomyces boulardii: a scanning electron microscopic and microbiological study. J Gen Microbiol 1990; 136:1085-1089.
66. Buts J-P, Bernasconi P, Vaerman J-P, Dive C. Stimulation of secretory IgA and secretory component of immunoglobulins sn small mtestme of rats treated withSaccharomyces boulardii. Dig Dis 9i 1990: 35:251-256.
67. Klayman DL. Qinghaosu (Artemisinin): an antimalarial drug from China. Science 1985, 228.1049-1055.
68. Levander OA, Ager A, Morris VC, May RG. Qinghaosu, dietary vitamin E, selenium and cod-liver oil: effect on the susceptibility of mice to the malarial parasite Plasmodium yoelii. Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 50:346-352.

  Previous   1  2  3    
 Comments Add your comment 

 About The Author
Leo Galland MD, FACN Leo Galland, M.D. has received international recognition as a leader in the field of Nutritional Medicine for the past 20 years. A board-certified internist, Dr. Galland is a Fellow of the......more
 From Our Friends
Popular & Related Products
Popular & Featured Events
Error Reading Event Calendar
Dimensions of Wellness
Wellness, Playing, Working, dimension!

Home       Wellness       Health A-Z       Alternative Therapies       Wellness Inventory       Wellness Center
Healthy Kitchen       Healthy Woman       Healthy Man       Healthy Child       Healthy Aging       Nutrition Center       Fitness Center
Discount Lab Tests      First Aid      Global Health Calendar      Privacy Policy     Contact Us
Disclaimer: The information provided on HealthWorld Online is for educational purposes only and IS NOT intended as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek professional medical advice from your physician or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Are you ready to embark on a personal wellness journey with our whole person approach?
Learn More/Subscribe
Are you looking to create or enhance a culture of wellness in your organization?
Learn More
Do you want to become a wellness coach?
Learn More
Free Webinar