Focusing deficiencies will increase the time necessary
for copying from the blackboard, induce visual fatigue
and/or avoidance of close work, and result in reduced
reading comprehension. In addition, visual focusing
difficulties will make it more difficult for an individual
to focus their attention and will contribute to attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Binocular Integration - Eye Teaming
The human visual system is designed so that the eyes and
their reciprocating muscles can work to such a high degree
of teaming that the two eyes perform as one. This skill is
intimately related to eye movement control and focusing
Deficiencies in eye teaming will cause an individual to
use excess effort when focusing for reading and writing and
will reduce their ability to sustain visual attention.
Visual-Motor Integration (Eye-Hand
Skill in eye-hand coordination is essential to accurate
and stress-free writing and to efficient performance in
Deficiencies in eye-hand coordination will make
handwriting more difficult or fatiguing, and may also affect
overall sports performance.
Visual Form Perception
Form evaluation skills allow for immediate and accurate
discrimination of likeness and differences and the ability
to reproduce and generalize forms.
Deficiencies in visual form perception may result in
difficulty recognizing or confusion of similar words.
Visual Intake - Visual Memory
Obtaining maximum visual information in the shortest
possible time provides for optimal performance. The ability
to retain this information over an adequate period of time
is essential for reading comprehension and spelling.
Dysfunctions in visual intake and visual memory may cause
difficulty recognizing the same word on the next page and
reduced reading comprehension. It will also result in
prolonged time copying assignments and difficulties
transferring information from one place to another.
How Are Visual Problems Treated?
Unresolved visual deficits can impair the ability to
respond fully to educational instruction. Management may
require optical correction, vision therapy, or a combination
of both. Vision therapy, the art and science of developing
and enhancing visual abilities and remediating vision
dysfunctions, has a firm foundation in vision science, and
both its application and efficacy have been established in
the scientific literature.
Optometric treatment for a vision dysfunction may include
the use of lenses, prisms, visual training programs, and
developmental vision guidance. In addition, specific
recommendations may also be made concerning general health