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Which of the following in NOT a direct benefit of a regular walking regimen?
Reduce Stress
Improved immune function
Achieving ideal weight.
Improved sugar metabolism

 Fitness and Special Populations: Exercise and Diabetes Guidelines  

Exercise has been shown to be effective in preventing the occurance of diabetes in persons who are at high risk for contracting the disease. Studies also show that exercise may be performed with persons who have diabetes complications (although not at severe levels), and that persons can perform intense exercise and even sports competition with the disease without suffering undo problems.

With over 70 years worth of information on the benefits of exercise for diabetic persons, it should be part of EVERY diabetic persons' medical plan to include daily moderate exercise for their diabetes control, weight management, muscle strength, aerobic fitness, and self esteem. In this instance, a little exercise goes a LONG way to improving health.


1. Barnard, RJ, Lattimore, L, Holly, G, Cherney, S, Pritikin, N. Response of NIDDM patients to an intensive program of diet and exercise. Diabetes Care. 1982, 5;4:370-74.
2. Barnard, RJ, Pritikin, N, et al. Effects of a high-complex carbohydrate diet and daily walking on blood pressure and medication status of hypertensive patients. Journal of Cardiac Rehab. 1983, 3:839.
3. Bernbaum, M, Albert, SG, Cohen, JD, Drimmen, A. Cardiovascular conditioning in individuals with diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 1989, 12;10, 740-42.
4. Cruickshanks, KJ, Moss, SE, Klein, R, Klein, BEK. Physical activity and proliferative retinopathy in people diagnosed with diabetes before age 30. Diabetes Care. 1992, 15;10:1267-72.
5. Durak, E.P., Jovanovic-Peterson, L, Peterson, C.M. Randomized crossover study of the effect of resistance training on glycemic control, muscular strength, and cholesterol in IDDM men. Diabetes Care. 13;10:1039-43, 1990.
19. Hanisch, R.J., Snyder, A.C. Exercise is safe with hyperglycemia. Diabetes Educator. 22:141, 1996. Presented at the 1996 AADE national meeting, New Orleans, LA
6. Helmrich, SP, Ragland, DR, Leung, RW, Paffenbarger, RS. Physical activity and the reduced occurrence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine. 325;3:147-52, 1991.
7. Horton, ES. The role and management of exercise in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1988, 11;2:201-11.
8. Jackson, Blair, SR. The association between physical fitness and NIDDM in men and women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 25:5:S-61, 1992.
9. Manson, JE, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, et al. Physical activity and the incidence of NIDDM in women. The Lancet. 338:774-77, 1991.
10. Manson, JE, Nathan, DM, Krolewski, AS, Stampfer, MJ, Willet, WC, Hennekens, CH. A prospective study of exercise and incidence of diabetes among US male physicians. JAMA. 268;1:63-67, 1992.
11. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. The Diabetes Dictionary. U.S Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health, 1989.
12. National Institutes of Health. Consensus conference on diet and exercise in NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1987, 10;5:639-44.
13. Peterson, CM, Dupuis, A, Levine, BS, et al. Feasibility of improved blood glucose control in patients with IDDM. Diabetes Care. 1979, 2;4:329-35.
15. Shiffrin, A, Parikh, S. Accommodating planned exercise in type I patients on intensive insulin therapy. Diabetes Care. 8;4:337-42, 1985.
16. Shwartz, RS. Exercise training in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in elderly subjects. Diabetes Care. 13;5:277-84, 1990.
17. Graham, C, Lasko-McCarthey, P. Exercise options for persons with diabetic complications. Diabetes Educator. 1990, 16:212-20.
18. Kriska, AM, LaPorte, RE, Patrick, SL, Kueller, LH, Orchard, TJ. The association of physical activity and diabetic complication in individuals with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: The epidemiology of diabetes complications study - VII. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 44;11:1207-14, 1991.

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 About The Author
Eric Durak received his Master of Science degree from the University of Michigan in 1986. His research experience is in the application of exercise for special population groups, such as diabetes, high risk pregnancy,......more
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