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Which of the following is an antioxidant?
Vitamin E
Vitamin B

 Nutritional Medicine: Endogenous Substances, Brain Dysfunction and Perceptual Changes in Schizophrenic Patients 
Harold Kelm PhD, Alan Kelm PhD ©

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3 Hoffer A: Quantification of Malvaria. International Journal of Neuropsychiatry 2, 559-561, 1966a.
4. Hoffer A: Malvaria, Schizophrenia and the HOD Test. International Journal of Neuropsychiatry 2, 175-178, 1966b.
5. Hoffer A, Kelm H & Osmond H (Eds.): Clinical and Other Uses of the Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic Test. Krieger Publ. Co., Huntington, N.Y., 1975.
6. Hoffer A & Mahon M: The Presence of Unidentified Substances in the Urine of Psychiatric Patients. Journal of Neuropsychiatry 2, 331-362, 1961.
7. Hoffer A & Osmond H: A Card Sorting Test Helpful in Making Psychiatric Diagnosis. Journal of Neuropsychiatry 2, 306- 330, 1961a.
8. Hoffer A & Osmond H: The Relationship between an Unknown Factor ("US") in Urine of Subjects and HOD Test Results. Journal of Neuropsychiatry 2, 363-368, 1961b.
9. Hoffer A & Osmond H: The Association between Schizophrenia and Two Objective Tests. Canadian Medical Association Journal 87, 641-646, 1962.
10. Hoffer A & Osmond H: Malvaria: A New Psychiatric Disease. Acta Psychiatrice Scandinavica 39, 335-366, 1963. 11. Irvine DG: Apparently Non-Indolic Ehrlich-Positive Substances Related to Mental Illness. Journal of Neuropsychiatry 2, 292-305, 1961.
12. Irvine DG, Bayne W, Miyashita H & Majer JR: Identification of Kryptopyrrole in Human Urine and its Relation to Psychosis. Nature 224, 811-813, 1969.
13. Irvine DG: Identification, Chemistry and Clinical Correlates of a Pyrrolic Metabolite in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask., 1981.
14. Kelm H: The Figural After-effect in Schizo-phrenic and Nonschizophrenic Patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 135, 338-345, 1962.
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17. Kelm H: Phenothiazine Therapy and Perceptual Changes in Schizophrenic Patients. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry 14, 92-96, 1985.
18. Kelm H & Hall RW: Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic Test and Figural After-effect. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 144, 305-307, 1967.
19. Kelm H., Hoffer A & Osmond H: Revised An Investigation of Visual Processes. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 88, 269-357, 1944.
22. McEwen P: Figural After-effects. British Journal of Psychology, Monography Supple-ment 31, 1-106, 1958.
23. Petrie A: Individuality in Pain and Suffering. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1978.

1. Department of Psychology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. 2. Department of Mathematics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Table 1. Summary of Analysis of Variance for HHPO and HHPO-free Schizophrenic Patients with Three Test-times

A: HHPO/HHPO-free0.0294010.0294012.250*
Error (a)0.0192080.00240
B: Test-time0.0568720.0284427.233**
A x B0.0144720.007236.927*
Error (b)0.01671160.00104
* p < .01; ** p < .001

no figure
(Excerpted from Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine)
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