So what would a typical day's
diet on such a pattern look like?
Nut/seed and driedfruit
mixture, plus live lowfat yogurt, or Wholegrain cereal
plus (live) lowfat yogurt, or
Oatmeal porridge, or
Wholemeal toast with vegetarian
margarine and sugarless jam
Egg (alternate days)
Drink of herbal tea (unsweetened)
Herbal tea or fresh fruit
or handful of seeds and fresh nuts
One of these meals could comprise
game, poultry or fish, plus a variety of fresh vegetables and
a side salad, plus wholemeal bread and fresh fruit.
The other meal could include
pasta (wholemeal) or rice with homemade tomato sauce, or
A rice and pulse (lentil,
etc.) dish, plus stirfried vegetables, or
A mixed salad with jacket
potato and lowfat cheese, etc. For dessert, fresh fruit
or lowfat yogurt.
Imagination and some effort
are all that limit the application of this type of eating pattern
with its attendant benefits to cardiovascular health.
There are a number of areas
which we should consider if we wish to improve cardiovascular
status via supplementation. One involves antioxidant (antifree
radical) activity and another the balancing and normalizing of
any imbalances in mineral status (potassium/sodium or calcium/magnesium,
for example). There is also the way in which some supplemented
substances (such as the enzyme derived from the pineapple plant
bromelaine) can specifically reduce platelet adhesiveness,
as well as very important protective effects from certain of
the individual amino acids (building blocks of protein) which
have recently been researched.
- The antioxidant
vitamins, minerals, enzymes and amino acids are all capable of
being supplemented in order to improve the deactivation of free
radical activity and the detoxification of heavy metals and other
toxins. Research evidence abounds as to the relative protection
of cardiovascular function (and general health) achieved when
these factors are in good supply in the diet, whether through
food or as added extras in the form of nutritional supplements.
Without analysing the particular
ways in which these act (see Chapter 4 on free radicals) these
can best be taken in combinations such as vitamins A, C, E and
the mineral selenium. If taken individually, daily doses which
can give antioxidant protection are:
Beta carotene (which the body
turns into vitamin A) 50,000 IU
Vitamin C 13 grams
Vitamin E 200400 IU
Selenium 200 micrograms
Cysteine (amino acid) 1.5
As an additional background
aid the taking of a modest level of the Bcomplex group
of vitamins is suggested. Find a formulation which provides not
less than 25 milligrams each of the major B vitamins (thiamine,
pyridoxine, etc.) and if you are a big meat eater take in addition
(at a separate time of day to the Bcomplex) 100 milligrams
of pyridoxine (B6) to help protect the arteries from damage from
breakdown products of the highprotein intake.
- Balancing minerals status
is an individual matter, depending very much on what imbalances
are present. A general 'insurance' supplement of calcium/magnesium
containing twice as much calcium as magnesium is usually suggested
(1 gram calcium/0.5 gram magnesium)
In addition a general mineral
supplement which contains zinc (around 20 milligrams), manganese
(20 milligrams), potassium (100 milligrams), chromium (200 micrograms)
and molybdenum (100 micrograms), but no iron or copper
Many authorities advocate
magnesium supplementation on its own (i.e., without additional
calcium) at doses of up to 800 milligrams daily, especially for
those with ischaemic heart disease (angina symptoms). Magnesium
is frequently given intraveneously for people severely compromised
by anginatype symptoms during the course of chelation therapy.
- Oil of evening primrose
(5001000 milligrams daily) supplies essential fatty acids
and becomes increasingly important as we get older. Of course
if enough linseed (ideal addition to breakfast cereal) or purslane
(delicious on salad) is eaten, supplementation is unnecessary.
The allimportant eicosapentenoic acid derived from coldwater
fish is a useful aid to cardiovascular health (36 EPA capsules)
and should be taken unless the individual is a vegetarian or eats
a good deal (twice weekly) of appropriate fish.
The pineapple plant extract
bromelaine is also useful for similar purposes in doses of up
to 1000 milligrams daily.
For those who do not enjoy
eating garlic, the oil of this amazing bulb can be taken in capsule
form ad lib.
Even more powerful at reducing
platelet aggregation is ginger (Zingebar officinale) and if it is
difficult to incorporate this into the diet in any quantity,
it too can be found in capsule form (dried powdered ginger).
- Two amino acids
have been shown to have remarkable abilities to assist cardiovascular
1. Carnitine: needed more
by men than women, this has been shown to assist enormously in
conditions such as intermittent claudication and as a protector
against myocardial infarction. It also has the ability to mobilize
and remove fat deposits. People who have had an infarction have
been shown to have a gross deficiency of this amino acid in the
muscles of the heart itself.
For best absorption supplementation
of individual amino acids is always taken away from meal times,
with water only and perhaps a small quantity of carbohydrate
(e.g., a bite of bread). Doses are usually between 1 and 1.5
grams daily, in two or three divided doses.
2. Taurine: this too is usually
deficient in cardiac tissue when a crisis occurs. It has the
ability to 'spare' potassium which is absolutely vital to normal
cardiovascular function. Another feature of taurine's function
is its ability to keep cholesterol soluble in the bile, thus
aiding in its elimination. It can usefully be supplemented in
cases of intermittent claudication and cardiovascular distress
in doses of between 0.5 and 1 gram daily (away from meal times
and any other amino acids).
- Methionine is used
to help detoxify heavy metals and is a powerful antioxidant.
The body can make either taurine or carnitine out of methionine
and this makes it a useful general supplement. People who develop
atherosclerosis are commonly found to have low levels of methionine
in the bloodstream. Doses of .5 to I gram daily are suggested
for general protection (away from meal times and other amino
There can be few people in
our society who are not at least slightly aware of aerobic exercise,
although it is clear that not too many actually understand what
it is all about.
Dr Kenneth Cooper, the American
physician who developed the system, conceived of being able to
teach anyone, starting from a point of any degree of fitness
or unfitness, to exercise safely in such a way as to be able
to achieve a steadily increasing degree of enhanced cardiovascular
and respiratory function.
Obviously no one who has cardiovascular
disease should start aerobic activity without an allclear
from their medical adviser, but the work of both Cooper (1980)
and Nathan Pritikin (1980) has demonstrated beyond doubt that
almost no matter how advanced the damage there remains something
that can be done via exercise to improve matters. The beginner
may well need to be under supervision and guidance, since it
is essential to learn to monitor the effects on the heart rate
of whatever form of exercise is being performed. True aerobic
exercise demands that a basic level of increased heart (pulse)
rate be achieved and that this be maintained for not less than
20 (ideally 30) minutes three times weekly with no more than
a day between such efforts. It is equally essential that an upper
'safe' limit be established beyond which there would be danger
of straining the heart.
As Colin Goodliffe (1987)
The heart has a maximum level
of activity and output which it would be dangerous to exceed.
This is the upper limit of the range which must be achieved
in cardiovascular exercise. There is also a level of heart
effort which it is necessary to reach, if any good at all is
to be achieved and this is the lower level of the heart rate
which must be aimed for during exercise.
We will explain how to discover
what these two figures are for you later in this chapter. First,
however, it is important that we establish the aerobic/chelation
Excercise helps chelation
In Chapter 2 we saw that chelation
processes are continuous throughout life and are an essential
part of most body processes. When the muscles work they produce
lactic acid as a breakdown product and lactic acid is almost
as powerful a chelating agent as acetic acid. As long as strong
and rapid muscular activity is continuing, so will lactic acid
continue to circulate in high quantities, chelating undesirable
substances all the while.
Dr Johan Bjorksten (1974)
Lactic acid is not as effective
as EDTA in its speed but given enough time to act it seems comparable
in total removal of chelatable metals. It [lactic acid] is a
fair to good chelating agent which is present in almost double
quantities during the time of moderate muscular exertion, and
which declines to normal levels abruptly in a few minutes upon
cessation of the muscular action.
Sustained exercise patterns
(walking, jogging, running, skiing, swimming, etc.) are therefore
seen to offer this natural chelation benefit. Bjorksten sees
this as providing a basis for increased longevity, while Walker
and Gordon (1982) make the important point that: 'the duration
of muscular exertion is more important than its intensity in
order to achieve a chelating effect from exercise'