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Which of the following in NOT a direct benefit of a regular walking regimen?
Reduce Stress
Improved immune function
Achieving ideal weight.
Improved sugar metabolism

 General Issues in Training: Designing Training Specificity
for the Athlete & Fitness Enthusiast

Occupation, Fame & Fortune
The Athlete: If they’re not getting paid for it now, most athletes hope they will after they reach their goals. Knowing that athletes make a livelihood of sports, their entire days are [consciously and subconsciously] focused on their objectives. A majority of what they think, eat, drink and sleep is directed to the attainment of their goals. This conditions their minds to communicate messages throughout the body and constantly reminds them of their objectives. Making a world team, competing in the Olympics, or playing in the NFL or NBA, are incentives most athletes strive for. Along with these accomplishments are guaranteed attachments of fame and fortune. Athletes have become one of our most opportunistic societies. From modeling to acting, guest speaking to commercial endorsements, most athletes have that little voice in the back of their heads that keeps telling them that if they excel in sports their dreams will flare out beyond their wildest imaginations. The financial incentives that drive athletes alone is enough to make almost anyone take on the commitment of proper training. Sports as their occupation and livelihood forces most athletes to assume a "have to" mentality.

The Fitness Enthusiast: At this stage, exercise and sports activities should be conducted for fun; to enhance one’s looks, job performance, appearance, sense of well-being; and to extend life. There are no paychecks, no rewards, no fame, (well maybe your intimate partner might pat you on the back every so often). Fitness enthusiasts have to establish a degree of self-motivation that’s supported with other, non-monetary, incentives. The closest they might get to being a role model is being complimented at the dinner table or at the office, but they certainly won’t become societies hero’s and heroines. Because exercising is not their occupation fitness enthusiasts should abide to a "want to" attitude.

Technical Evaluation
The Athlete: Most athletes have access to various testing facilities which analyze strength, flexibility, endurance, speed, body composition, and evaluate biological assays and performance abilities. These serve as essential criteria for program planning and conduct. Since athletes are monitored by these tests, energy output and reserves can be factored into each training cycle so as to avoid overtraining, thus keeping the athlete fresh and productive. Athletic skills are evaluated with sophisticated performance tests that include sprinting, vertical jumping, mobility, weight lifting, body composition, and others. When levels are recorded, training protocols are developed and adjusted as needed. Athletes also often have access to therapeutic services like massage, chiropractic, and others; and don’t forget, athletes are usually fitted with the best equipment they need to train and compete.

The Fitness Enthusiast: Fitness enthusiasts, on the other hand, haven’t easy [or affordable] access to proper evaluations. Even if they did the inconvenience of these services does not permit testing as frequently as needed. When physiological evaluations are not regularly assessed, underlying and non-visual obstacles which may be developing, when left unnoticed, inevitably hampers progression. When stagnation is experienced, oftentimes the fitness enthusiast just keeps right on training maintaining and sometimes even increasing his or her intensities instead of adjusting to their recuperation needs. This compounds the ill-state of performance, because these periods of distress are usually preceded by a mentality of "don’t fix it unless it’s broken"; it usually does just that. Additionally, recuperation from training which might include massage and other therapies is inconvenient and expensive. Instead, the fitness enthusiast hopes a beer or two, and a few aspirin, will hopefully [fingers crossed] cure all-- not exactly a perfect picture of sports science. And when it’s time to change those worn out shoes you hear, "Heck, they’ve got at least another 20 miles in em". Also not a wise decision, considering, for most activities, your entire body relies on the adequate support of your feet.

The Athlete: Cycling is the manner in which the athlete expends and replenishes their energies. No one, not even the best athletes, can maintain peak condition without a balanced cyclic regimen that incorporates adequate Preparatory periods, Contest (or specific application) periods, followed by Re-Adaptation (or recovery) periods (refer to chart). I call this the P.A.R. formula of training (Preparation, Application, & Recuperation). If athletes do not get themselves up to P.A.R. they simply will never reach their truest potential. During training cycles, the intensities of activities are intended to take the athlete to competition status. Percentages fluctuate between 40% to 100% of best efforts. Applying varying percentages in training, conditions the athlete for all intensities, or levels of performance, instead of trying to train 100% all of the time. No one is capable of maintaining a 100% energy output during training on a year-round basis. This is simply an overload on the body which ultimately breaks down and lowers performance. Cycling plays an instrumental role for the competitive athlete’s career, allowing peaks in performance to be accurately timed so they are exhibited during competitions.

The Fitness Enthusiast: Since most of them have no valid scientific methods for training, fitness enthusiasts often times approach training at one intensity [or percentage]. The goal for the fitness enthusiast is that each and every workout matches previous best recordings. This creates a tail-chasing scenario that prevents proper intensity adjustments needed for energy output and energy reservations. If the workout at hand isn’t being conducted up to the levels of previous "best" days, fitness enthusiasts push themselves even harder and, ironically, further away from improvements. If the body is still recuperating from a previous workout , forcing it to output 100% again, when a 75% effort would be better, the body is robbed of that extra 25% energy that should be allocated for recuperation. Knowing that this is the case, I’ve witnessed many fitness enthusiasts who get frustrated trying to match their best recordings session after session. Being the good guy that I am I just hand them a shovel, because the energy they’re expending may as well go toward digging their own grave, as that’s where they’re heading anyway --just kidding. By simply adjusting workout intensity so as to allow the body to output what it’s capable of for each and every workout, fitness enthusiasts will experience year-round progression. Athletes down cycle, reducing training intensities and percentages. These reductions are timed so as to minimize recuperation time. These systematic recuperation allowances, by way of down cycling, are installed on a mandatory basis into the training routines of athletes. This way the athlete stays progressive instead of hitting the wall. Fitness enthusiasts (on the whole) down cycle only when their bodies have thrown in the towel and are totally burnt out. Their recuperation then holds hostage all of the bodies reserves. The "If it ain’t broken, don’t fix it" slogan has no real place in training. My advice is to reduce workout intensity with this simple formula: Every third workout a 20% reduction in workout intensity should be enforced in comparison to the previous two sessions. Activities should also change for this third workout session. For instance; if you’re a runner, on days one and two run as hard as you wish, but on day three include more flexibility movements, some light weight training, run at 80% (speed and time), then treat yourself to some therapy like wading in a swimming pool, getting a massage, taking a sauna, etc..

The Athlete: Competition stress can be enormous. With all the components that drive an athlete, combined with the need to excel, stress can make or break the competitor. Competition stress is, of course, managed a lot better by some. The ability to control stress might be a genetic psychological gift, or, might just be a result of self-applied conditioning of the attitude and nerves. Competition stress depletes the hormonal and immune systems which can plummet the skills [and health] of any level athlete.

The Fitness Enthusiast: If they don’t exercise, so what. They can make it up some other time. And if they say they’re going to run five miles, and actually end up doing only three, so what again. Remember, fitness enthusiasts should be in this for the fun and must remember to eliminate any pressure or stress relative to that "have to" attitude, and replace it with that "want to" attitude; pace yourself, just don’t use what I’ve just said to get too lazy now.

The Athlete: Years, decades, even lifetimes are dedicated to sports by many athletes. Even after competition days are long gone, staying in shape is a natural thing for many former athletes. Discipline, knowledge, nutrition, and knowing how to rest become embedded into the biochemical makeup of the athlete as their lives revolve around their events. Most athletes live every single moment with some correlation to their sport. Most athletes, even in off seasons, train and prepare [in some way] for physical enhancement.

The Fitness Enthusiast: When they punch out at years end fitness enthusiasts register far less time exercising and sticking to sound nutritional plans when compared to the athlete. Judging both physiques and performance accomplishments makes that obvious. Fitness enthusiasts make "resolutions", and then drop completely away from their aspirations as interferences and distractions (i.e., money, travel, holidays, etc.) get in their way. Unfortunately, sometimes the only real cycle the fitness enthusiast performs, is one were they commit to getting in shape, commence the plan, then lose interest, get distracted, and end up burnt out. This creates significant gaps in training. And the fact that bingeing is often sneaked into these lax periods, compounds the problem making much more difficult to get back into shape each time the fitness enthusiast decides to give "it" another "go".

The Athlete: Since their lives are dedicated to sports, most athletes are given the luxury of having all day to concentrate on their training, and fulfill their P.A.R. needs. And even though we hear of athletes spending 6-8 hours each day working out, portions of that time are often divided on other tasks like anatomical and sports specific education, psychological training, physical therapy, physiological evaluations, etc.. Athletes perform all three P.A.R. components at times which are most effective; they have the options of choosing the times of the day best suited for output and reserves.

The Fitness Enthusiast: Apply, apply, apply. Since there’s a limited amount of time that’s available for exercise application, preparation and recuperation activities are brushed over or ignored totally. Most fitness enthusiasts plunge into the application of their workouts ignoring the other two essential components of the 3-part success formula. This creates imbalances leading to stagnation, regression, injury and burn out.

Additionally, workout periods are conducted during times that permit, not times that are ideal. Squeezing in a workout during a lunch hour, or trying to perform some exercises between other chores, might be beneficial but not ideal.

The Athlete: Athletes traditionally train then eagerly look forward to eating. Their eating and nutritional programs are designed to refuel their anatomical engines and repair the tissues broken down during training. Athletes are performance oriented. They realize optimum performance is attained through wise and methodical training efforts that are fueled by nutrition. Training is not anabolic or growth producing. Actually, training is catabolic, or destructive, as it breaks down the tissues. It’s only during the recuperation periods that the body grows and repairs itself. So therefore, optimum nutrition rebuilds the body progressively after tissue damage. Consequently, optimum nutrition, makes the body stronger which enables it to endure more tissue damaging training. These catabolic/anabolic, or breakdown and build-up cycles, rely on nutrition for year-round support and help the athlete reach peak development. Nutritional supplementation is a complex science. Athletes are taking advantage of the barrage of supplements available today, to make up their high-calorie nutrient-dense eating regimens. One of the great things we can learn from the athlete, is that THEY KNOW what works and what’s bogus, and they also know what to take and when to take it. I’m a firm believer in, "It’s not so much what you eat but when you eat it that counts". Adaptogenic substances like velvet deer antler; ergogenic aids like creatine, inosine, vanadyl sulfate, and chromium picolinate; protein substitutes like branch-chain amino acids, arginine, ornithine, and various powdered drinks; and free-radical fighting antioxidants high in vitamin C, comprise the arsenal of supplements athletes consume to stay healthy and progress athletically; and knowing when to take them is as important as taking them at all.

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 About The Author
John Abdo JOHN ABDO is regarded world wide as an authority on life motivation, health, fitness and athletic conditioning. As a former Olympic trainer, John has trained numerous Olympic and World-Class athletes, including Bonnie......more
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