When insecure, group members are particularly likely to place
blame, to see others as fitting into categories of good or bad, to make moral
judgments of their colleagues and to question the value, motive and affect
loadings of the speech which they hear. Since value loadings imply a judgment of
others, a belief that the standards of the speaker differ from his or her own
causes the listener to become defensive.
Descriptive speech, in contrast to that which is evaluative,
tends to arouse a minimum of uneasiness. Speech acts which the listener
perceives as genuine requests for information or as material with neutral
loadings is descriptive. Specifically, presentation of feelings, events,
perceptions or processes which do not ask or imply that the receiver change
behavior or attitude are minimally defense producing. The difficulty in avoiding
overtone is illustrated by the problems of news reporters in writing stories
about unions, Communists, Blacks and religious activities without tipping off
the "party" line of the newspaper. One can often tell from the opening
words in a news article which side the newspaper's editorial policy favors.
Speech which is used to control the listener evokes
resistance. In most of our social intercourse, someone is trying to do something
to someone else—to change an attitude, to influence behavior, or to restrict
the field of activity. The degree to which attempts to control produce
defensiveness depends upon the openness of the effort, for a suspicion that
hidden motives exist heightens resistance. For this reason, attempts of
nondirective therapists and progressive educators to refrain from imposing a set
of values, a point of view or a problem solution upon the receivers meet with
many barriers. Since the norm is control, noncontrollers must earn the
perceptions that their efforts have no hidden motives. A bombardment of
persuasive "messages" in the fields of politics, education, special
causes, advertising, religion, medicine, industrial relations and guidance has
bred cynical and paranoid responses in listeners.
Implicit in all attempts to alter another person is the
assumption by the change agent that the person to be altered is inadequate. That
the speaker secretly views the listener as ignorant, unable to make his or her
own decisions, uninformed, immature, unwise, or possessed of wrong or inadequate
attitudes is a subconscious perception which gives the latter a valid base for
Methods of control are many and varied. Legalistic insistence on detail, restrictive regulations and policies, conformity norms, and all laws are among the methods. Gestures, facial expressions, other forms of nonerbal communication, and even such simple acts as holding a door open in a particular manner are means of imposing one's will upon another and hence are potential sources of resistance.
Problem orientation, on the other hand, is the antithesis of persuasion. When the sender communicates desire to collaborate in defining a mutual problem and in seeking its solution, he tends to create the same problem orientation in the listener; and, of greater importance, he imlies that he has no predetermnined solution, attitude, or method to impose. Such behavior is permissive in that it allows the receiver to set his own goals, to make his own decisions, and evaluate his own progress—or to share with the sender in doing so. The exact mehtods of attaining permissiveness are not known, but they must involve a constellation of cues and they certianly go beyond mere verbal assurance that the communicator has no hidden desires to exercise control.