|© Micaela Sullivan-Fowler|
Foolers: things that look like pneumonia in children.
Oermann CM; Moore RH
Pulmonary Medicine Service, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital,
Houston 77030, USA.
Semin Respir Infect 1996 Sep;11(3):204-13
NLM CIT. ID:
Pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiographs are common findings in the pediatric age group and are generally associated with acute infectious pneumonias. Occasionally, however, these "pneumonias" fail to respond to appropriate antibiotic therapy. Under these circumstances, noninfectious conditions that may be associated with pulmonary infiltrates should be considered. Thus, it is important that physicians who care for children have some knowledge of these potential "mimickers" of childhood pneumonia.
Early childhood respiratory symptoms and the subsequent
diagnosis of asthma.
Dodge R; Martinez FD; Cline MG; Lebowitz MD; Burrows B
Respiratory Sciences Center, University of Arizona College of
Medicine, Tucson 85724, USA.
J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996 Jul;98(1):48-54
NLM CIT. ID:
Respiratory symptoms are frequent in very young children, and the relation of these symptoms to later asthma in some of these children is unknown.
The aim of the study was to describe the natural history of respiratory symptoms in a community-based sample of young children who were prospectively observed for as long as 11 years.
Subjects were participants in the Tucson Epidemiologic Study of Airways Obstructive Disease. They were under 5 years of age at enrollment and were studied by means of a parent-administered mail survey instrument every 1 to 2 years for 3 to 11 years.
Among subjects younger than 1 year of age, no single respiratory symptom, such as cough or wheeze only with colds, significantly increased the risk of a subsequent diagnosis of asthma. Among 1- and 2-year-olds, however, those with wheeze only with colds and those with attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze were more likely to be diagnosed with asthma later when compared with children without those symptoms (odds ration = 2.1; p < 0.05 for wheeze only with colds). At ages 3 to 4 years, symptoms were even more strongly associated with subsequent asthma (odds ratio = 7.2; p < 0.0001 for attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze).
Although respiratory symptoms reported by parents very early in life are not significantly associated with future asthma, those symptoms that begin at or persist through ages 3 to 4 years are.
Guided self-management and patient education in asthma.
Br J Nurs 1996 Jul 11-24;5(13):785-9
NLM CIT. ID:
Asthma is a disease characterized by fluctuation in symptom severity which often requires alterations in management in response to symptom changes. Patient awareness and skill in decision making is important for effective self-management of asthma. Patient education helps patients to develop these skills. However, patient education that is based solely on general asthma information is not effective in improving patient self-management. Individual management plans improve patient outcomes in asthma. These asthma management plans give clear guidelines about how and when the patient should vary medication. They provide a basis for discussion and improved communication between the patient and health-care professionals. Management plans use severity of symptoms or peak flow measurements to guide patient action. They also address the concerns of asthma patients, e.g. the need to know how to control their symptoms and to understand how to use their own medication.